BookMan Apps

Library Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A library is an organized collection ofsources of information and similar resources, made accessible to adefined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physicalor digital access to material, and may be a physical building orroom, or a virtual space, or both.[1] A library's collection caninclude books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps,prints, documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs,Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats.Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to severalmillion items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of bookcase isrepresented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē (Greek: βιβλιοθήκη):derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g.French bibliothèque.The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form ofwriting—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer,some dating back to 2600 BC. Private or personal libraries made upof written books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th centuryBC. In the 6th century, at the very close of the Classical period,the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those ofConstantinople and Alexandria.A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, aninstitution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public andinstitutional collections and services may be intended for use bypeople who choose not to—or cannot afford to—purchase an extensivecollection themselves, who need material no individual canreasonably be expected to have, or who require professionalassistance with their research. In addition to providing materials,libraries also provide the services of librarians who are expertsat finding and organizing information and at interpretinginformation needs. Libraries often provide quiet areas forstudying, and they also often offer common areas to facilitategroup study and collaboration. Libraries often provide publicfacilities for access to their electronic resources and theInternet. Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined asplaces to get unrestricted access to information in many formatsand from many sources. They are extending services beyond thephysical walls of a building, by providing material accessible byelectronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians innavigating and analyzing very large amounts of information with avariety of digital tools.
Zebra Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Zebras (/ˈzɛbrə/ ZEB-rə or /ˈziːbrə/ZEE-brə)[1] are several species of African equids (horse family)united by their distinctive black and white striped coats. Theirstripes come in different patterns, unique to each individual. Theyare generally social animals that live in small harems to largeherds. Unlike their closest relatives, horses and donkeys, zebrashave never been truly domesticated.There are three species of zebras: the plains zebra, the Grévy'szebra and the mountain zebra. The plains zebra and the mountainzebra belong to the subgenus Hippotigris, but Grévy's zebra is thesole species of subgenus Dolichohippus. The latter resembles anass, to which it is closely related, while the former two are morehorse-like. All three belong to the genus Equus, along with otherliving equids.The unique stripes of zebras make them one of the animals mostfamiliar to people. They occur in a variety of habitats, such asgrasslands, savannas, woodlands, thorny scrublands, mountains, andcoastal hills. However, various anthropogenic factors have had asevere impact on zebra populations, in particular hunting for skinsand habitat destruction. Grévy's zebra and the mountain zebra areendangered. While plains zebras are much more plentiful, onesubspecies, the quagga, became extinct in the late 19th century –though there is currently a plan, called the Quagga Project, thataims to breed zebras that are phenotypically similar to the quaggain a process called breeding back.
English SpringerSpaniel Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The English Springer Spaniel is a breed of gundog in the Spaniel family traditionally used for flushing andretrieving game. It is an affectionate, excitable breed with anaverage lifespan of twelve to fourteen years.[1] Descended from theNorfolk or Shropshire Spaniels of the mid-19th century, the breedhas diverged into separate show and working lines. The breedsuffers from average health complaints. The show-bred version ofthe breed has been linked to "rage syndrome", although the disorderis very rare. It is closely related to the Welsh Springer Spanieland very closely with the English Cocker Spaniel; less than acentury ago, springers and cockers would come from the same litter.The smaller "cockers" hunted woodcock while the larger littermateswere used to flush, or "spring," game. In 1902, the Kennel Club ofEngland recognized the English Springer Spaniel as a distinctbreed.[2] They are used as sniffer dogs on a widespread basis. Theterm springer comes from the historic hunting role, where the dogwould "spring" (flush) birds into the air.
Dachshund Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The dachshund (UK /ˈdæksənd/ or US/ˈdɑːkshʊnt/ DAHKS-huunt or US /ˈdɑːksənt/;[2]) is a short-legged,long-bodied dog breed belonging to the hound family. The standardsize dachshund was bred to scent, chase, and flush out badgers andother burrow-dwelling animals, while the miniature dachshund wasdeveloped to hunt smaller prey such as rabbits. In the AmericanWest they have also been used to hunt prairie dogs. Today, they arebred for conformation shows and as family pets. Some dachshundsparticipate in earthdog trials. According to the AKC, the dachshundcontinues to remain one of the top 10 dog breeds in the UnitedStates of America.
Shaolin Monastery Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Shaolin Monastery or Shaolin Temple (Chinese:少林寺; pinyin: Shàolín Sì; Wade–Giles: Shao4-lin2 Szu4, pronounced[ʂɑ̂ʊ̯lǐn sî]; Cantonese Yale: Siulàhm Jí) is a Chán Buddhisttemple on Mount Song, near Dengfeng, Zhengzhou, Henan province,China. It is led by Abbot Shi Yongxin. Founded in the fifthcentury, the monastery is long famous for its association withChinese martial arts and particularly with Shaolin Kung Fu, and itis the best known Mahayana Buddhist monastery to the Westernworld.Shaolin Monastery and its famed Pagoda Forest were inscribed as aUNESCO World Heritage Site in 2010 as part of the "HistoricMonuments of Dengfeng."The shào (少) in "Shaolin" refers to Shaoshi Mountain (少室山), one ofthe seven mountains forming the Songshan mountain range; it is onthis mountain the Temple is situated. The word lín (林) means"forest". The word sì (寺) means "monastery/temple". The taijiquanmaster Zhang Zuyao[3] incorrectly translated "Shaolin" as "young(new) forest" or sometimes "little forest". This newer translationis commonly accepted today.
High-speed Rail Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
High-speed rail is a type of rail transportthat operates significantly faster than traditional rail traffic,using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock anddedicated tracks. The first such system began operations in Japanin 1964 and was widely known as the bullet train. High-speed trainsnormally operate on standard gauge tracks of continuously weldedrail on grade-separated right-of-way that incorporates a largeturning radius in its design.Many countries have developed high-speed rail to connect majorcities, including Belgium, Britain, China, France, Germany, Italy,Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey and theUnited States.While high-speed rail is usually designed for passenger travel,some high-speed systems also offer freight service. For instance,the French mail service La Poste owns a few special TGV trains forcarrying postal freight.
Petrol Engine Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A petrol engine (known as a gasoline engine inNorth America) is an internal combustion engine withspark-ignition, designed to run on petrol (gasoline) and similarvolatile fuels. It was invented in 1876 in Germany by Germaninventor Nikolaus August Otto. The first petrol combustion engine(one cylinder, 121.6 cm3 displacement) was prototyped in 1882 inItaly by Enrico Bernardi. In most petrol engines, the fuel and airare usually pre-mixed before compression (although some modernpetrol engines now use cylinder-direct petrol injection). Thepre-mixing was formerly done in a carburetor, but now it is done byelectronically controlled fuel injection, except in small engineswhere the cost/complication of electronics does not justify theadded engine efficiency. The process differs from a diesel enginein the method of mixing the fuel and air, and in using spark plugsto initiate the combustion process. In a diesel engine, only air iscompressed (and therefore heated), and the fuel is injected intovery hot air at the end of the compression stroke, andself-ignites.
Hamburger Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A hamburger (also called a beef burger,hamburger sandwich, burger or hamburg) is a sandwich consisting ofone or more cooked patties of ground meat, usually beef, placedinside a sliced bun. Hamburgers are often served with lettuce,bacon, tomato, onion, pickles, cheese and condiments such asmustard, mayonnaise, ketchup, relish, and green chile.[1]The term "burger" can also be applied to the meat patty on its own,especially in the UK where the term "patty" is rarely used. Theterm may be prefixed with the type of meat used as in "turkeyburger".
Dessert Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Dessert (/dɨˈzɜrt/) is a typically sweetcourse that concludes an evening meal. The course usually consistsof sweet foods, but may include other items.In world cultures there are a wide variety of desserts includingcakes, tarts, cookies, biscuits, gelatins, pastries, ice creams,pies, puddings, custards, sweet soups and candies. Fruit is alsocommonly found in dessert courses because of its naturallyoccurring sweetness. Many different cultures have their ownvariations of similar desserts around the world, such as in Russia,where many breakfast foods such as blint, oladi, and syrniki can beserved with honey and jam to make them popular as desserts. Theloosely defined course called dessert can apply to manyfoods.
Cantonese cuisine Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Cantonese cuisine comes from Guangdongprovince[1] and is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinesecuisine. Its prominence outside China is due to the great numbersof early emigrants from Guangdong. Cantonese chefs are highlysought after throughout China.[2] When Westerners speak of Chinesefood, they usually refer to Cantonese cuisine.Guangdong has long been a trading port and many imported foods andingredients are used in Cantonese cuisine. Besides pork, beef andchicken, Cantonese cuisine incorporates almost all edible meats,including offal, chicken feet, duck's tongue, snakes, and snails.However, lamb and goat are rarely eaten, unlike in the cuisines ofnorthern or western China. Many cooking methods are used, withsteaming and stir frying being the most favoured due to theirconvenience and rapidity. Other techniques include shallow frying,double steaming, braising, and deep frying.For many traditional Cantonese cooks, the flavours of a finisheddish should be well balanced and not greasy. Apart from that,spices should be used in modest amounts to avoid overwhelming theflavours of the primary ingredients, and these ingredients in turnshould be at the peak of their freshness and quality. There is nowidespread use of fresh herbs in Cantonese cooking, in contrastwith their liberal use in other cuisines such as Sichuan, European,Thai or Vietnamese. Garlic chives and coriander leaves are notableexceptions, although the latter are usually used as mere garnish inmost dishes.
Cupcake Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A cupcake (also British English: fairy cake;Australian English: fairy cake, patty cake or cup cake) is a smallcake designed to serve one person, which may be baked in a smallthin paper or aluminium cup. As with larger cakes, icing and othercake decorations, such as candy, may be applied.The first mention of the cupcake can be traced as far back as 1796,when a recipe notation of "a cake to be baked in small cups" waswritten in American Cookery by Amelia Simmons. The earliestdocumentation of the term cupcake was in "Seventy-five Receipts forPastry, Cakes, and Sweetmeats" in 1828 in Eliza Leslie's Receiptscookbook.In the early 19th century, there were two different uses for thename cup cake or cupcake. In previous centuries, before muffin tinswere widely available, the cakes were often baked in individualpottery cups, ramekins, or molds and took their name from the cupsthey were baked in. This is the use of the name that has remained,and the name of "cupcake" is now given to any small cake that isabout the size of a teacup. While English fairy cakes vary in sizemore than American cupcakes, they are traditionally smaller and arerarely topped with elaborate icing.The other kind of "cup cake" referred to a cake whose ingredientswere measured by volume, using a standard-sized cup, instead ofbeing weighed. Recipes whose ingredients were measured using astandard-sized cup could also be baked in cups; however, they weremore commonly baked in tins as layers or loaves. In later years,when the use of volume measurements was firmly established in homekitchens, these recipes became known as 1234 cakes or quartercakes, so called because they are made up of four ingredients: onecup of butter, two cups of sugar, three cups of flour, and foureggs. They are plain yellow cakes, somewhat less rich and lessexpensive than pound cake, due to using about half as much butterand eggs compared to pound cake. The names of these two majorclasses of cakes were intended to signal the method to the baker;"cup cake" uses a volume measurement, and "pound cake" uses aweight measurement.
Onigiri Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
O-nigiri (お握り or 御握り; おにぎり?), also known aso-musubi (お結び; おむすび?), nigirimeshi (握り飯; にぎりめし?) or rice ball, is aJapanese food made from white rice formed into triangular or ovalshapes and often wrapped in nori (seaweed). Traditionally, anonigiri is filled with pickled ume (umeboshi), salted salmon,katsuobushi, kombu, tarako, or any other salty or sour ingredientas a natural preservative. Because of the popularity of onigiri inJapan, most convenience stores stock their onigiri with variousfillings and flavors. There are even specialized shops which onlysell onigiri to take out.
Chameleon Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Chameleons or chamaeleons (familyChamaeleonidae) are a distinctive and highly specialized clade oflizards. The approximately 180 species of chameleon come in a rangeof colors, and many species have the ability to change colors.Chameleons are distinguished by their zygodactylous feet; theirvery long, highly modified, rapidly extrudable tongues; theirswaying gait; and crests or horns on their distinctively shapedheads. Most species, the larger ones in particular, also have aprehensile tail. Chameleons' eyes are independently mobile, but inaiming at a prey item, they focus forward in coordination,affording the animal stereoscopic vision. Chameleons are adaptedfor climbing and visual hunting. They are found in warm habitatsthat range from rain forest to desert conditions, various speciesoccurring in Africa, Madagascar, southern Europe, and acrosssouthern Asia as far as Sri Lanka. They also have been introducedto Hawaii, California, and Florida, and often are kept as householdpets.
Steam Engine Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A steam engine is a heat engine that performsmechanical work using steam as its working fluid.Using boiling water to produce mechanical motion goes back over2000 years, but early devices were not practical. The Spanishinventor Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont patented in 1606 the firststeam engine. In 1698 Thomas Savery patented a steam pump that usedsteam in direct contact with the water being pumped. Savery's steampump used condensing steam to create a vacuum and draw water into achamber, and then applied pressurized steam to further pump thewater. Thomas Newcomen's atmospheric engine was the firstcommercial true steam engine using a piston, and was used in 1712for pumping in a mine.In 1781 James Watt patented a steam engine that produced continuousrotary motion.[1] Watt's ten-horsepower engines enabled a widerange of manufacturing machinery to be powered. The engines couldbe sited anywhere that water and coal or wood fuel could beobtained. By 1883, engines that could provide 10,000 hp had becomefeasible.[2] Steam engines could also be applied to vehicles suchas traction engines and the railway locomotives. The stationarysteam engine was a key component of the Industrial Revolution,allowing factories to locate where water power wasunavailable.Steam engines are external combustion engines,[3] where the workingfluid is separate from the combustion products. Non-combustion heatsources such as solar power, nuclear power or geothermal energy maybe used. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this processis called the Rankine cycle. In the cycle, water is heated andtransforms into steam within a boiler operating at a high pressure.When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is done.The reduced-pressure steam is then condensed and pumped back intothe boiler.In general usage, the term steam engine can refer to either theintegrated steam plants (including boilers etc.) such as railwaysteam locomotives and portable engines, or may refer to the pistonor turbine machinery alone, as in the beam engine and stationarysteam engine. Specialized devices such as steam hammers and steampile drivers are dependent on steam supplied from a separateboiler. Reciprocating piston type steam engines remained thedominant source of power until the early 20th century, whenadvances in the design of electric motors and internal combustionengines gradually resulted in the replacement of reciprocating(piston) steam engines in commercial usage, and the ascendancy ofsteam turbines in power generation.[4] Considering that the greatmajority of worldwide electric generation is produced by turbinetype steam engines, the "steam age" is continuing with energylevels far beyond those of the turn of the 19th century.
Snow Leopard Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The snow leopard (Panthera uncia syn. Unciauncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central andSouth Asia. It is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List ofThreatened Species because as of 2003, the size of the globalpopulation was estimated at 4,080-6,590 adults, of which fewer than2,500 individuals may reproduce in the wild.[1]Snow leopards inhabit alpine and subalpine zones at elevations from3,000 to 4,500 m (9,800 to 14,800 ft). In the northern rangecountries, they also occur at lower elevations.[3]Taxonomically, the snow leopard was classified as Uncia uncia sincethe early 1930s.[2] Based on genotyping studies, the cat has beenconsidered a member of the genus Panthera since 2008.[1][4] Twosubspecies have been attributed, but genetic differences betweenthe two have not been settled.[1]The snow leopard is the National Heritage Animal of Pakistan.
Akita Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The Akita (秋田犬 Akita-inu?) is a large breed ofdog originating from the mountainous northern regions of Japan.There are two separate varieties of Akita: a Japanese strain, knownas the "Akita Inu" or "Japanese Akita"; and an American strain,known as the "Akita" or "American Akita".[2] The Japanese straincomes in a small choice of colors, with all other colors consideredatypical of the breed, while the American strain comes in all dogcolors.[2] The Akita has a short double coat, similar to that ofmany other northern spitz breeds such as the Siberian Husky, butlong coated dogs can be found in many litters due to a recessivegene.The Akita is a powerful, independent and dominant breed, commonlyaloof with strangers but affectionate with family members. As abreed, Akitas are generally hardy, but they have been known tosuffer from various genetic conditions and be sensitive to certaindrugs.In most countries, the American strain of Akita is now considered aseparate breed. In the United States and Canada, however, the twostrains are considered a single breed with differences in type. Fora while, the American strain of Akita was known in some countriesas the "Great Japanese Dog". Both forms of Akita are probably bestknown worldwide from the true story of Hachikō, a loyal Akita dogwho lived in Japan before World War II.
Japanese macaque Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The Japanese macaque (/məˈkɑːk/; Macacafuscata), is a terrestrial Old World monkey species native toJapan. They are also sometimes known as the snow monkey becausethey live in areas where snow covers the ground for months eachyear – no other non-human primate is more northern-living, norlives in a colder climate. Individuals have brown-grey fur, redfaces, and short tails. There are two subspecies.In Japan, the species is known as Nihonzaru (Nihon ニホン "Japan" +saru ザル "monkey") to distinguish it from other primates, but theJapanese macaque is very familiar in Japan, so when Japanese peoplesimply say saru, they usually have in mind the Japanesemacaque.
Villa Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A villa was originally an ancient Romanupper-class country house. Since its origins in the Roman villa,the idea and function of a villa have evolved considerably. Afterthe fall of the Roman Republic, villas became small farmingcompounds, which were increasingly fortified in Late Antiquity,sometimes transferred to the Church for reuse as a monastery. Thenthey gradually re-evolved through the Middle Ages, into elegantupper-class country homes. In modern parlance 'villa' can refer tovarious types and sizes of residences, ranging from the suburban"semi-detached" double villa to residences in the wildland–urbaninterface.
Elephant Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Elephants are large mammals of the familyElephantidae and the order Proboscidea. Two species aretraditionally recognised, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana)and the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), although some evidencesuggests that African bush elephants and African forest elephantsare separate species (L. africana and L. cyclotis respectively).Elephants are scattered throughout sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia,and Southeast Asia. Elephantidae are the only surviving family ofthe order Proboscidea; other, now extinct, families of the orderinclude mammoths and mastodons. Male African elephants are thelargest surviving terrestrial animals and can reach a height of 4 m(13 ft) and weigh 7,000 kg (15,000 lb). All elephants have severaldistinctive features the most notable of which is a long trunk orproboscis, used for many purposes, particularly breathing, liftingwater and grasping objects. Their incisors grow into tusks, whichcan serve as weapons and as tools for moving objects and digging.Elephants' large ear flaps help to control their body temperature.Their pillar-like legs can carry their great weight. Africanelephants have larger ears and concave backs while Asian elephantshave smaller ears and convex or level backs.Elephants are herbivorous and can be found in different habitatsincluding savannahs, forests, deserts and marshes. They prefer tostay near water. They are considered to be keystone species due totheir impact on their environments. Other animals tend to keeptheir distance, predators such as lions, tigers, hyenas and wilddogs usually target only the young elephants (or "calves"). Females("cows") tend to live in family groups, which can consist of onefemale with her calves or several related females with offspring.The groups are led by an individual known as the matriarch, oftenthe oldest cow. Elephants have a fission-fusion society in whichmultiple family groups come together to socialise. Males ("bulls")leave their family groups when they reach puberty, and may livealone or with other males. Adult bulls mostly interact with familygroups when looking for a mate and enter a state of increasedtestosterone and aggression known as musth, which helps them gaindominance and reproductive success. Calves are the centre ofattention in their family groups and rely on their mothers for aslong as three years. Elephants can live up to 70 years in the wild.They communicate by touch, sight, smell and sound; elephants useinfrasound, and seismic communication over long distances. Elephantintelligence has been compared with that of primates and cetaceans.They appear to have self-awareness and show empathy for dying ordead individuals of their kind.African elephants are listed as vulnerable by the InternationalUnion for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), while the Asian elephantis classed as endangered. One of the biggest threats to elephantpopulations is the ivory trade, as the animals are poached fortheir ivory tusks. Other threats to wild elephants include habitatdestruction and conflicts with local people. Elephants are used asworking animals in Asia. In the past they were used in war; today,they are often put on display in zoos and circuses. Elephants arehighly recognisable and have been featured in art, folklore,religion, literature and popular culture.
Hot dog Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A hot dog (also spelled hotdog) is a cookedsausage, traditionally grilled or steamed and served in a slicedbun as a sandwich. Hot dog variants include the corn dog dipped incorn batter and deep fried, pigs in blankets wrapped in dough,baked, and served as hors d'oeuvres, and Beanie Weenies chopped andmixed with baked beans. Typical hot dog garnishes include mustard,ketchup, onions, mayonnaise, relish, cheese, chili, andsauerkraut.The sausages were culturally imported from Germany and popularizedin the United States, where they were a working class street foodsold at hot dog stands that came to be associated with baseball andAmerica. Hot dog preparation and condiment styles also varyregionally across the United States. The hot dog's culturaltraditions include the Nathan's Hot Dog Eating Contest andWienermobile.
Australian Shepherd Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The Australian Shepherd, commonly known as theAussie, is a breed of dog that was developed on ranches in thewestern United States.[2] Despite its name, the breed was notdeveloped in Australia, but rather in the United States where theywere seen in the West as early as the 1800s.[3][4][5] The breedrose gradually in popularity with the boom of western riding afterWorld War I. They became known to the general public throughrodeos, horse shows, and Disney movies made for television.For many years, Aussies have been valued by stockmen for theirversatility and trainability. They have a similar look to thepopular English Shepherd and Border Collie breeds. While theycontinue to work as stockdogs and compete in herding trials, thebreed has earned recognition in other roles due to theirtrainability and eagerness to please, and are highly regarded fortheir skills in obedience.[6] Like all working breeds, the Aussiehas considerable energy and drive, and usually needs a job to do.It often excels at dog sports such as dog agility, flyball, andfrisbee. They are also highly successful search and rescue dogs,disaster dogs, detection dogs, guide, service, and therapydogs.
Pea Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The pea is most commonly the small sphericalseed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.[1] Each podcontains several peas. Peapods are botanically a fruit,[2] sincethey contain seeds developed from the ovary of a (pea) flower. Thename is also used to describe other edible seeds from the Fabaceaesuch as the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), the cowpea (Vignaunguiculata), and the seeds from several species of Lathyrus.P. sativum is an annual plant, with a life cycle of one year. It isa cool season crop grown in many parts of the world; planting cantake place from winter to early summer depending on location. Theaverage pea weighs between 0.1 and 0.36 grams.[3] The immature peas(and in snow peas the tender pod as well) are used as a vegetable,fresh, frozen or canned; varieties of the species typically calledfield peas are grown to produce dry peas like the split pea shelledfrom the matured pod. These are the basis of pease porridge and peasoup, staples of medieval cuisine; in Europe, consuming freshimmature green peas was an innovation of Early Moderncuisine.The wild pea is restricted to the Mediterranean basin and the NearEast. The earliest archaeological finds of peas date from the lateneolithic era of current Greece, Syria, Turkey and Jordan. InEgypt, early finds date from ca. 4800–4400 BC in the Nile deltaarea, and from ca. 3800–3600 BC in Upper Egypt. The pea was alsopresent in Georgia in the 5th millennium BC. Farther east, thefinds are younger. Peas were present in Afghanistan ca. 2000 BC, inHarappa, Pakistan, and in northwest India in 2250–1750 BC. In thesecond half of the 2nd millennium BC, this pulse crop appears inthe Gangetic basin and southern India.
Dongpo pork Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Dongpo pork (simplified Chinese: 东坡肉;traditional Chinese: 東坡肉; pinyin: dōngpōròu) is a Hangzhou dishwhich is made by pan-frying and then red cooking pork belly. Thepork is cut to around 2 inches square in dimensions, consisting ofhalf fat and half lean meat. The mouth feel is oily but not greasy,with the fragrance of wine. The dish is named after the famed SongDynasty poet Su Dongpo.Legend has it that while Su Dongpo was banished to Hangzhou, in alife of poverty, he made an improvement of the traditional process.He first braised the pork, added Chinese fermented wine and madered-braised pork, then slowly stewed it on a low heat. The legend,like that for General Tso's Chicken, is romantic, not historical.Lin Hsiang Ju and Lin Tsuifeng in their scholarly ChineseGastronomy give a recipe, “The Fragrance of Pork: Tungpo Pork,” andremark that the “square of fat is named after Su Tungpo, the poet,for unknown reasons. Perhaps it is just because he would have likedit.” [3]A popular tourist website relates that Dongpo Pork experiencedthree phases from its first appearance to being widely known. Thewhole history was generally in line with the life experience of SuDongpo. Starting from Xuzhou, a northern city of Jiangsu province,in which Dongpo pork appeared in the name of Huizeng pork, toHuangzhou, today's Huanggang of Hubei province, in which Su Dongpocompleted the whole cooking method, and finally to Hangzhou, inwhich Dongpo pork was officially named and widely known inChina.
Beefsteak Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A beefsteak is a flat cut of beef, usually cutperpendicular to the muscle fibers. Beefsteaks are usually grilled,pan-fried, or broiled. The more tender cuts from the loin and ribare cooked quickly, using dry heat, and served whole. Less tendercuts from the chuck or round are cooked with moist heat or aremechanically tenderized (cf. cube steak).
Crossing bridge noodles Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Crossing-the-bridge noodles is a rice noodlesoup from Yunnan province, China. It is one of the most well-knowndishes in Yunnan cuisine.The dish is served with a large bowl of boiling hot broth and thesoup ingredients separate. The soup ingredients are served on acutting board or plate and include raw vegetables and lightlycooked meats. Common ingredients include thin slices of ham, chunksof chicken, chicken skin, strips of bean curd sheets, chives,sprouts and rice noodles. Once added into the broth, it cooksquickly with a layer of schmaltz and oil glistening on top. Thesoup takes a few minutes to cook, and it is then spooned out intosmall bowls. Jim Thurman of LA Weekly writes that "with the ricenoodles and fresh chicken, it's reminiscent of an extremely subtleversion of Vietnamese pho ga. Which shouldn't surprise anyone, asYunnan shares a border with Vietnam."
German Shepherd Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The German Shepherd (German: DeutscherSchäferhund, German pronunciation: [ˈʃɛːfɐˌhʊnt]) is a breed oflarge-sized working dog that originated in Germany. The breed'sofficially recognized name is German Shepherd Dog in the Englishlanguage, sometimes abbreviated as "GSD", and was also formerlyknown as the Alsatian and Alsatian Wolf Dog in Britain.[4] TheGerman Shepherd is a relatively new breed of dog, with their origindating to 1899. As part of the Herding Group, German Shepherds areworking dogs developed originally for herding sheep. Since thattime, however, because of their strength, intelligence,trainability and obedience, German Shepherds around the world areoften the preferred breed for many types of work, includingsearch-and-rescue, police and military roles and even acting.[5]The German Shepherd is the second-most popular breed of dog in theUnited States[6] and fourth-most popular in the UnitedKingdom.
Mooncake Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Mooncake (simplified Chinese: 月饼; traditionalChinese: 月餅; pinyin: yuè bĭng) is a Chinese bakery producttraditionally eaten during the Mid-Autumn Festival (Zhongqiujie).The festival is for lunar worship and moon watching, when mooncakesare regarded as an indispensable delicacy. Mooncakes are offeredbetween friends or on family gatherings while celebrating thefestival. The Mid-Autumn Festival is one of the four most importantChinese festivals.Typical mooncakes are round pastries, measuring about 10 cm indiameter and 3–4 cm thick. This is the Cantonese mooncake, eaten inSouthern China in Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macau. A rich thickfilling usually made from red bean or lotus seed paste issurrounded by a thin (2–3 mm) crust and may contain yolks fromsalted duck eggs. Mooncakes are usually eaten in small wedgesaccompanied by Chinese tea. Today, it is customary for businessmenand families to present them to their clients or relatives aspresents,[1] helping to fuel a demand for high-end mooncake styles.The energy content of a mooncake is approximately 1,000 calories or4,200 kilojoules (for a cake measuring 10 cm (3.9 in)), but energycontent varies with filling and size.
Pudding Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Pudding is usually a dessert, but it can alsobe a savory dish.The word pudding is believed to come from the French boudin,originally from the Latin botellus, meaning "small sausage",referring to encased meats used in Medieval Europeanpuddings.
Spaghetti Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Spaghetti is a long, thin, cylindrical pastaof Italian origin.[1] Spaghetti is the plural form of the Italianword spaghetto, which is a diminutive of spago, meaning "thinstring" or "twine".[1]Spaghetti is made of semolina or flour and water. Italian driedspaghetti is made from durum wheat semolina, but outside of Italyit may be made with other kinds of flour. Traditionally, mostspaghetti was 50 cm (20 in) long, but shorter lengths gained inpopularity during the latter half of the 20th century and nowspaghetti is most commonly available in 25–30 cm (10–12 in)lengths. A variety of pasta dishes are based on it, from spaghettialla Carbonara or garlic and oil to a spaghetti with tomato sauce,meat and other sauces.
Moscow Kremlin Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Моско́вскийКремль, tr. Moskovskiy Kreml; IPA: [mɐˈskofskʲɪj krʲemlʲ]), usuallyreferred to as simply the Kremlin, is a historic fortified complexat the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south,Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and theAlexander Garden to the west. It is the best known of kremlins(Russian citadels) and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, andthe enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. The complex servesas the official residence of the President of the RussianFederation.The name Kremlin means "fortress inside a city",[1] and is oftenused as a metonym to refer to the government of the RussianFederation in a similar sense to how the White House is used torefer to the Executive Office of the President of the UnitedStates. Indeed, even the Russian president's official website isKremlin.ru. It had previously been used to refer to the governmentof the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and its highest members (such asgeneral secretaries, premiers, presidents, ministers, andcommissars). "Kremlinology" refers to the study of Soviet andRussian politics.
Whippet Puzzle 1.21
BookMan
The Whippet (also English Whippet or Snap dog)is a breed of medium-sized dog. They are a sighthound breed thatoriginated in England, where they descended from greyhounds.Whippets today still strongly resemble a smaller greyhound. Shownin the Hound group, Whippets have relatively few health problemsother than arrhythmia. Whippets also participate in dog sports suchas lure coursing, agility, and flyball.Whippets were originally greyhounds that were deemed unsuitable forhunting because of their size. They were returned to their peasantbreeders after being maimed so that they could not be used to huntand break the Forest law. These maimed dogs were bred together andused to catch rats, and hunt rabbits. When the Forest law wasrepealed, these "miniature greyhounds" became popular in the sportof dog racing. This has led to Whippets being described as "thepoor man's racehorse."[3] They are still frequently used as racingdogs today, as they have the highest running speed of breeds theirweight: 35 miles per hour (56 km/h) and even challenge greyhoundsfor top speed. Whippets are however the fastest accelerating dog inthe world.
Molten chocolate cake Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Molten chocolate cake or lava cake is apopular dessert that combines the elements of a flourless chocolatecake (sometimes called a chocolate decadence cake) and a soufflé.Some other names used are chocolate fondant,[1] chocolate moelleuxand chocolate lava cake.The United States-based chef Jean-Georges Vongerichten claims tohave invented molten chocolate cake in New York City in 1987, butthe French chef and chocolatier Jacques Torres has disputed thatclaim, arguing that such a dish already existed in France.According to Vongerichten, he pulled a chocolate sponge cake fromthe oven before it was done and found that the center was stillrunny, but was warm and had both a good taste and a good texture.Regardless of who invented the dish, Vongerichten has been creditedwith popularizing it in the United States, and it is now almost ade rigueur inclusion on high-end restaurant dessert menus.
Tibetan Mastiff Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The Tibetan Mastiff (Wylie: 'dogs khyi;[1]Lhasa dialect IPA: [tʰòcʰi]) is an ancient breed and type ofdomestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) originating with nomadiccultures of Tibet, China, Nepal, and Central Asia.The Tibetan Mastiff also known as "Dok-Khyi"[2] (translated as"nomad dog", "dog which may be tied", "dog which may be kept"),reflects its use as a guardian of herds, flocks, tents, villages,monasteries, and palaces, much as the old English ban-dog (alsomeaning tied dog) was a dog tied outside the home as a guardian.However, in nomad camps and in villages, the do-khyi istraditionally allowed to run loose at night.[citation needed]The guardian type from which the modern Tibetan Mastiff breed hasbeen derived was known across the ancient world by many names.Bhote Kukur in Nepali as bhote means someone from Tibet and kukurmeans dog. The Chinese name for the breed is 藏獒 (Mandarin: Zàng áo;Cantonese: Tzong ngou), meaning "Tibetan mastiff-dog". In Mongolia,it is called bankhar.The name Tibetan mastiff is a misnomer; it is not a true mastiff.The term "mastiff" was used primarily because it meant "big dog".Early Western visitors to Tibet misnamed several of its breeds: The"Tibetan Terrier" is not a terrier and the "Tibetan Spaniel" is nota spaniel. A better name for the dog would be Tibetan mountain dogor, to encompass the landrace breed throughout its range, Himalayanmountain dog.
Curry Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Curry (/ˈkʌri/, plural curries) is a dishwhose origins are Southern and Southeastern Asian cuisines, as wellas New World cuisines influenced by them such as Trinidadian,Jamaican and Fijian. The common feature is the incorporation ofcomplex combinations of spices or herbs, usually including fresh ordried hot chillies. Some limit the use of the term curry to dishesprepared in a sauce,[1][2] but curries may be "wet" or "dry". Acurry dish may be spiced with leaves from the curry tree, but manycurries do not have this ingredient.In original traditional cuisines, the precise selection of spicesfor each dish is a matter of national or regional culturaltradition, religious practice, and, to some extent, familypreference. Such dishes are called by specific names that refer totheir ingredients, spicing, and cooking methods.[3]Traditionally, spices are used both whole and ground; cooked orraw; and they may be added at different times during the cookingprocess to produce different results.Curry powder, a commercially prepared mixture of spices, is largelya Western notion, dating to the 18th century. Such mixtures arecommonly thought to have first been prepared by Indian merchantsfor sale to members of the British Colonial government and armyreturning to Britain.Dishes called "curry" may contain meat, poultry, fish, orshellfish, either alone or in combination with vegetables. Many areinstead entirely vegetarian, especially among those who holdethical or religious proscriptions against eating meat orseafood.Curries may be either "wet" or "dry." Wet curries containsignificant amounts of sauce or gravy based on yoghurt, coconutmilk, legume purée (dal), or stock. Dry curries are cooked withvery little liquid which is allowed to evaporate, leaving the otheringredients coated with the spice mixture.The main spices found in most South Asian curry powders areturmeric, coriander, and cumin; a wide range of additional spicesmay be included depending on the geographic region and the foodsbeing included (white/red meat, fish, lentils, rice andvegetables).
Waterfall Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A waterfall is a place where water flows overa vertical drop in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls alsooccur where meltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg orice shelf.Waterfalls are commonly formed when a river is young. At thesetimes the channel is often narrow and deep. When the river coursesover resistant bedrock, erosion happens slowly, while downstreamthe erosion occurs more rapidly. As the watercourse increases itsvelocity at the edge of the waterfall, it plucks material from theriverbed. Whirlpools created in the turbulence as well as sand andstones carried by the watercourse increase the erosion capacity.This causes the waterfall to carve deeper into the bed and torecede upstream. Often over time, the waterfall will recede back toform a canyon or gorge downstream as it recedes upstream, and itwill carve deeper into the ridge above it. The rate of retreat fora waterfall can be as high as one and half meters per year.Often, the rock stratum just below the more resistant shelf will beof a softer type, meaning that undercutting due to splashback willoccur here to form a shallow cave-like formation known as a rockshelter under and behind the waterfall. Eventually, theoutcropping, more resistant cap rock will collapse under pressureto add blocks of rock to the base of the waterfall. These blocks ofrock are then broken down into smaller boulders by attrition asthey collide with each other, and they also erode the base of thewaterfall by abrasion, creating a deep plunge pool or gorge.Streams become wider and shallower just above waterfalls due toflowing over the rock shelf, and there is usually a deep area justbelow the waterfall because of the kinetic energy of the waterhitting the bottom. Waterfalls normally form in a rocky area due toerosion. After a long period of being fully formed, the waterfalling off the ledge will retreat, causing a horizontal pitparallel to the waterfall wall. Eventually, as the pit growsdeeper, the waterfall collapses to be replaced by a steeply slopingstretch of river bed.[1] In addition to gradual processes such aserosion, earth movement caused by earthquakes or landslides orvolcanoes can cause a differential in land heights which interferewith the natural course of a water flow, and result inwaterfalls.A river sometimes flows over a large step in the rocks that mayhave been formed by a fault line. Waterfalls can occur along theedge of a glacial trough, where a stream or river flowing into aglacier continues to flow into a valley after the glacier hasreceded or melted. The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley areexamples of this phenomenon, which is referred to as a hangingvalley. Another reason hanging valleys may form is where two riversjoin and one is flowing faster than the other.[1] Waterfalls can begrouped into ten broad classes based on the average volume of waterpresent on the fall (which depends on both the waterfall's averageflow and its height) using a logarithmic scale. Class 10 waterfallsinclude Niagara Falls, Paulo Afonso Falls and Khone Falls.Classes of other well-known waterfalls include Victoria Falls andKaieteur Falls (Class 9); Rhine Falls and Gullfoss (Class 8); AngelFalls and Dettifoss (Class 7); Yosemite Falls, Lower YellowstoneFalls and Umphang Thee Lor Sue Waterfall (Class 6); SutherlandFalls (Class 5).
Samoyed Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The Samoyed (/ˈsæməjɛd/ SAM-ə-yed or/səˈmɔɪ.ɛd/ sə-MOY-ed;[1][2] Russian: Самоедская собака) is a breedof dog that takes its name from the Samoyedic peoples of Siberia.These nomadic reindeer herders bred the fluffy white dogs to helpwith the herding, and to pull sleds when they moved. An alternatename for the breed, especially in Europe,[citation needed] isBjelkier.
Bibimbap Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Bibimbap (비빔밥, Korean pronunciation:[pibimbap],[1] sometimes anglicized bi bim bap or bi bim bop) is asignature Korean dish. The word literally means "mixed rice".Bibimbap is served as a bowl of warm white rice topped with namul(sautéed and seasoned vegetables) and gochujang (chili pepperpaste), soy sauce, or doenjang, a salty soybean paste. A raw orfried egg and sliced meat (usually beef) are common additions. Thehot dish is stirred together thoroughly just beforeeating.[2]In South Korea, Jeonju, Jinju, and Tongyeong are especially famousfor their versions of bibimbap.[3] In 2011, it was listed at number40 on the World's 50 most delicious foods readers' poll compiled byCNN Travel.
White Rose Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose, Japanese rose, orRamanas rose) is a species of rose native to eastern Asia, innortheastern China, Japan, Korea and southeastern Siberia, where itgrows on the coast, often on sand dunes.[1] It should not beconfused with Rosa multiflora, which is also known as "Japaneserose".
Giraffe Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is anAfrican even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest living terrestrialanimal and the largest ruminant. Its species name refers to itscamel-like appearance and the patches of color on its fur. Itschief distinguishing characteristics are its extremely long neckand legs, its horn-like ossicones, and its distinctive coatpatterns. It is classified under the family Giraffidae, along withits closest extant relative, the okapi. The nine subspecies aredistinguished by their coat patterns.The giraffe's scattered range extends from Chad in the north toSouth Africa in the south, and from Niger in the west to Somalia inthe east. Giraffes usually inhabit savannas, grasslands, and openwoodlands. Their primary food source is acacia leaves, which theybrowse at heights most other herbivores cannot reach. Giraffes arepreyed on by lions; their calves are also targeted by leopards,spotted hyenas, and wild dogs. Adult giraffes do not have strongsocial bonds, though they do gather in loose aggregations if theyhappen to be moving in the same general direction. Males establishsocial hierarchies through "necking", which are combat bouts wherethe neck is used as a weapon. Dominant males gain mating access tofemales, which bear the sole responsibility for raising theyoung.The giraffe has intrigued various cultures, both ancient andmodern, for its peculiar appearance, and has often been featured inpaintings, books, and cartoons. It is classified by theInternational Union for Conservation of Nature as Least Concern,but has been extirpated from many parts of its former range, andsome subspecies are classified as Endangered. Nevertheless,giraffes are still found in numerous national parks and gamereserves.
Turkey meat Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Turkey meat is the meat from turkeys,typically domesticated turkeys. It is a popular poultry productused in a number of culturally significant events as well as foreveryday nourishment.
Sunshine Girl Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Love sports and love to laugh, laugh is thekind of awesomeness or to attractivenessBut also very lively enthusiasm for anything full of powerIf she does not love to laugh and shy that would not work, which isto be from the heartIf she does not laugh it becomes hypocrisy rather than naturalsunlight charming
Sushi Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Sushi (すし, 寿司, 鮨?) is a Japanese foodconsisting of cooked vinegared rice (鮨飯 sushi-meshi?) combined withother ingredients (ネタ neta?), seafood, vegetables and sometimestropical fruits. Ingredients and forms of sushi presentation varywidely, but the ingredient which all sushi have in common is rice(also referred to as shari (しゃり?) or sumeshi (酢飯?)).Sushi can be prepared with either brown or white rice. Sushi isoften prepared with raw seafood, but some common varieties of sushiuse cooked ingredients or are vegetarian. Raw fish (or occasionallyother meat) sliced and served without rice is called"sashimi".Sushi is often served with gari (ginger), wasabi, and soy sauce.Popular garnishes are often made using daikon.
Train Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A train is a form of rail transport consistingof a series of vehicles that usually runs along a rail track totransport cargo or passengers although magnetic levitation trainsthat float above the track exist too.[1] Motive power is providedby a separate locomotive or individual motors in self-propelledmultiple units. Although historically steam propulsion dominated,the most common modern forms are diesel and electric locomotives,the latter supplied by overhead wires or additional rails. Otherenergy sources include horses, rope or wire, gravity, pneumatics,batteries, and gas turbines. Train tracks usually consists of two,three or four or five rails, with a limited number of monorails andmaglev guideways in the mix. The word 'train' comes from the OldFrench trahiner, from the Latin trahere 'pull, draw'.[2]There are various types of trains that are designed for particularpurposes. A train may consist of a combination of one or morelocomotives and attached railroad cars, or a self-propelledmultiple unit (or occasionally a single or articulated poweredcoach, called a railcar). The first trains were rope-hauled,gravity powered or pulled by horses. From the early 19th centuryalmost all were powered by steam locomotives. From the 1910sonwards the steam locomotives began to be replaced by lesslabour-intensive and cleaner (but more complex and expensive)diesel locomotives and electric locomotives, while at about thesame time self-propelled multiple unit vehicles of either powersystem became much more common in passenger service.A passenger train is one which includes passenger-carrying vehicleswhich can often be very long and fast. One notable and growinglong-distance train category is high-speed rail. In order toachieve much faster operation over 500 km/h (310 mph), innovativeMaglev technology has been researched for years. In most countries,such as the United Kingdom, the distinction between a tramway and arailway is precise and defined in law. The term light rail issometimes used for a modern tram system, but it may also mean anintermediate form between a tram and a train, similar to a subwayexcept that it may have level crossings.A freight train (also known as goods train) uses freight cars (alsoknown as wagons or trucks) to transport goods or materials (cargo)– essentially any train that is not used for carryingpassengers.
Travel Trains Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A train is a form of rail transport consistingof a series of vehicles that usually runs along a rail track totransport cargo or passengers although magnetic levitation trainsthat float above the track exist too.[1] Motive power is providedby a separate locomotive or individual motors in self-propelledmultiple units. Although historically steam propulsion dominated,the most common modern forms are diesel and electric locomotives,the latter supplied by overhead wires or additional rails. Otherenergy sources include horses, rope or wire, gravity, pneumatics,batteries, and gas turbines. Train tracks usually consists of two,three or four or five rails, with a limited number of monorails andmaglev guideways in the mix. The word 'train' comes from the OldFrench trahiner, from the Latin trahere 'pull, draw'.[2]There are various types of trains that are designed for particularpurposes. A train may consist of a combination of one or morelocomotives and attached railroad cars, or a self-propelledmultiple unit (or occasionally a single or articulated poweredcoach, called a railcar). The first trains were rope-hauled,gravity powered or pulled by horses. From the early 19th centuryalmost all were powered by steam locomotives. From the 1910sonwards the steam locomotives began to be replaced by lesslabour-intensive and cleaner (but more complex and expensive)diesel locomotives and electric locomotives, while at about thesame time self-propelled multiple unit vehicles of either powersystem became much more common in passenger service.A passenger train is one which includes passenger-carrying vehicleswhich can often be very long and fast. One notable and growinglong-distance train category is high-speed rail. In order toachieve much faster operation over 500 km/h (310 mph), innovativeMaglev technology has been researched for years. In most countries,such as the United Kingdom, the distinction between a tramway and arailway is precise and defined in law. The term light rail issometimes used for a modern tram system, but it may also mean anintermediate form between a tram and a train, similar to a subwayexcept that it may have level crossings.A freight train (also known as goods train) uses freight cars (alsoknown as wagons or trucks) to transport goods or materials (cargo)– essentially any train that is not used for carryingpassengers.
Great Wall Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The Great Wall of China is a series offortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and othermaterials, generally built along an east-to-west line across thehistorical northern borders of China in part to protect the ChineseEmpire or its prototypical states against intrusions by variousnomadic groups or military incursions by various warlike peoples orforces. Several walls were being built as early as the 7th centuryBC;[3] these, later joined together and made bigger and stronger,are now collectively referred to as the Great Wall.[4] Especiallyfamous is the wall built between 220–206 BC by the first Emperor ofChina, Qin Shi Huang. Little of that wall remains. Since then, theGreat Wall has on and off been rebuilt, maintained, and enhanced;the majority of the existing wall is from the Ming Dynasty.Other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls,allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along theSilk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control ofimmigration and emigration. Furthermore, the defensivecharacteristics of the Great Wall were enhanced by the constructionof watch towers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signalingcapabilities through the means of smoke or fire, and the fact thatthe path of the Great Wall also served as a transportationcorridor.The main Great Wall line stretches from Shanhaiguan in the east, toLop Lake in the west, along an arc that roughly delineates thesouthern edge of Inner Mongolia. A comprehensive archaeologicalsurvey, using advanced technologies, has concluded that the Mingwalls measure 8,850 km (5,500 mi).[5] This is made up of 6,259 km(3,889 mi) sections of actual wall, 359 km (223 mi) of trenches and2,232 km (1,387 mi) of natural defensive barriers such as hills andrivers.[5] Another archaeological survey found that the entire wallwith all of its branches measure out to be 21,196 km (13,171mi).
Magnificent Waterfall Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A waterfall is a place where water flows overa vertical drop in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls alsooccur where meltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg orice shelf.Waterfalls are commonly formed when a river is young.[1] At thesetimes the channel is often narrow and deep. When the river coursesover resistant bedrock, erosion happens slowly, while downstreamthe erosion occurs more rapidly.[1][2] As the watercourse increasesits velocity at the edge of the waterfall, it plucks material fromthe riverbed. Whirlpools created in the turbulence as well as sandand stones carried by the watercourse increase the erosioncapacity.[1] This causes the waterfall to carve deeper into the bedand to recede upstream. Often over time, the waterfall will recedeback to form a canyon or gorge downstream as it recedes upstream,and it will carve deeper into the ridge above it.[3] The rate ofretreat for a waterfall can be as high as one and half meters peryear.[1]Often, the rock stratum just below the more resistant shelf will beof a softer type, meaning that undercutting due to splashback willoccur here to form a shallow cave-like formation known as a rockshelter under and behind the waterfall. Eventually, theoutcropping, more resistant cap rock will collapse under pressureto add blocks of rock to the base of the waterfall. These blocks ofrock are then broken down into smaller boulders by attrition asthey collide with each other, and they also erode the base of thewaterfall by abrasion, creating a deep plunge pool or gorge.Streams become wider and shallower just above waterfalls due toflowing over the rock shelf, and there is usually a deep area justbelow the waterfall because of the kinetic energy of the waterhitting the bottom. Waterfalls normally form in a rocky area due toerosion. After a long period of being fully formed, the waterfalling off the ledge will retreat, causing a horizontal pitparallel to the waterfall wall. Eventually, as the pit growsdeeper, the waterfall collapses to be replaced by a steeply slopingstretch of river bed.[1] In addition to gradual processes such aserosion, earth movement caused by earthquakes or landslides orvolcanoes can cause a differential in land heights which interferewith the natural course of a water flow, and result inwaterfalls.A river sometimes flows over a large step in the rocks that mayhave been formed by a fault line. Waterfalls can occur along theedge of a glacial trough, where a stream or river flowing into aglacier continues to flow into a valley after the glacier hasreceded or melted. The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley areexamples of this phenomenon, which is referred to as a hangingvalley. Another reason hanging valleys may form is where two riversjoin and one is flowing faster than the other.[1] Waterfalls can begrouped into ten broad classes based on the average volume of waterpresent on the fall (which depends on both the waterfall's averageflow and its height) using a logarithmic scale. Class 10 waterfallsinclude Niagara Falls, Paulo Afonso Falls and Khone Falls.Classes of other well-known waterfalls include Victoria Falls andKaieteur Falls (Class 9); Rhine Falls and Gullfoss (Class 8); AngelFalls and Dettifoss (Class 7); Yosemite Falls, Lower YellowstoneFalls and Umphang Thee Lor Sue Waterfall (Class 6); SutherlandFalls (Class 5).
Eel as food Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Eels are elongated fish, ranging in lengthfrom 5 centimetres (2.0 in) to 4 metres (13 ft).[1] Adults range inweight from 30 grams to over 25 kilograms. They possess no pelvicfins, and many species also lack pectoral fins. The dorsal and analfins are fused with the caudal or tail fin, forming a single ribbonrunning along much of the length of the animal.[2] Most eels livein the shallow waters of the ocean and burrow into sand, mud, oramongst rocks. A majority of eel species are nocturnal, and thusare rarely seen. Sometimes, they are seen living together in holes,or "eel pits". Some species of eels also live in deeper water onthe continental shelves and over the slopes deep as 4,000 metres(13,000 ft). Only members of the Anguillidae family regularlyinhabit fresh water, but they too return to the sea tobreed.[3]Eel blood is poisonous to humans[4] and other mammals,[5][6][7] butboth cooking and the digestive process destroy the toxic protein.The toxin derived from eel blood serum was used by Charles Richetin his Nobel winning research which discovered anaphylaxis (byinjecting it into dogs and observing the effect).The Jewish laws of Kashrut forbid the eating of eels.[8] Accordingto the King James version of the Old Testament, it is acceptable toeat fin fish, but fish like eels, which do not have fins, are anabomination and should not be eaten.[9]Japan consumes more than 70 percent of the global eel catch.
Locomotive Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A locomotive or engine is a rail transportvehicle that provides the motive power for a train. The wordoriginates from the Latin loco – "from a place", ablative of locus,"place" + Medieval Latin motivus, "causing motion", and is ashortened form of the term locomotive engine,[1] first used in theearly 19th century to distinguish between mobile and stationarysteam engines.A locomotive has no payload capacity of its own, and its solepurpose is to move the train along the tracks.[2] In contrast, sometrains have self-propelled payload-carrying vehicles. These are notnormally considered locomotives, and may be referred to as multipleunits, motor coaches or railcars. The use of these self-propelledvehicles is increasingly common for passenger trains, but rare forfreight (see CargoSprinter). Vehicles which provide motive power tohaul an unpowered train, but are not generally consideredlocomotives because they have payload space or are rarely detachedfrom their trains, are known as power cars.Traditionally, locomotives pull trains from the front. Increasinglycommon outside North America is push-pull operation, where onelocomotive pulls the train from the front and another locomotivepushes it from behind. In this arrangement the locomotive at therear of the train is controlled from a control cab at the front ofthe train. Push-pull operation is generally infeasible in NorthAmerica as, even if mid-train or tail-end "helpers" are provided,the front-end might have over 26,000 horsepower (19,000 kW), netfor traction, whereas the mid-train and/or tail-end "helpers" mighthave only 9,000 horsepower (6,700 kW), net for traction.
Cappuccino Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A cappuccino (/ˌkæpəˈtʃiːnoʊ/; Italianpronunciation: [kapputˈtʃiːno]) is an Italian coffee drink which istraditionally prepared with espresso, hot milk, and steamed-milkfoam. The name comes from the Capuchin friars, referring to thecolour of their habits.[1]The Viennese bestowed the name Kapuziner in the 19th century,although their version included whipped cream, which the Italiansfound rather heavy.Cappuccino is a coffee drink composed of espresso and hot milk,with the surface topped with foamed milk.[2] Cappuccinos are mostoften prepared on an espresso machine. The espresso is extractedinto the bottom third of the cup, followed by a similar amount ofhot milk, which is prepared by heating and texturing the milk usingthe espresso machine steam wand. The top third of the drinkconsists of milk foam; this foam can be decorated with artisticdrawings made with the same milk, called latte art. In atraditional cappuccino, as served in Europe and artisan coffeehouses in the United States, the total of espresso and milk/foammake up between approximately 150–180 ml (5–6 imp fl oz; 5–6 US floz). Commercial coffee chains in the US more often serve thecappuccino as a 360 ml (13 imp fl oz; 12 US fl oz) drink orlarger.[3]Cappuccino differs from caffè latte foremost in size: Cappuccino istraditionally small (max 180 ml), while 'latte' traditionally islarge (200 ml-300 ml). Cappuccino traditionally has a layer oftextured milk micro foam exceeding 1 cm in thickness; Caffè Latteis often served in a large glass; cappuccino mostly in a cup with ahandle.The World Barista Championships have been arranged annually since2000, and during the course of the competition, the competingbarista must produce -for four sensory judges- among other drinksfour cappuccinos, defined in WBC Rules and Regulations as [...]...a coffee and milk beverage that should produce a harmoniousbalance of rich, sweet milk and espresso [...] The cappuccino isprepared with one (1) single shot of espresso, textured milk andfoam. A minimum of 1 centimeter of foam depth [...] A cappuccino isa beverage between 150 ml and 180 ml in total volume
Gerbera Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Gerbera (/ˈdʒɜrbərə/ or /ˈɡɜrbərə/) L. is agenus of plants in the (daisy family). It was named in honour ofGerman botanist and naturalist Traugott Gerber (1710-1743) whotravelled extensively in Russia and was a friend of CarolusLinnaeus.[3]Gerbera is native to tropical regions of South America, Africa andAsia. The first scientific description of a Gerbera was made byJ.D. Hooker in Curtis's Botanical Magazine in 1889 when hedescribed Gerbera jamesonii, a South African species also known asTransvaal daisy or Barberton Daisy. Gerbera is also commonly knownas the African Daisy.Gerbera species bear a large capitulum with striking, two-lippedray florets in yellow, orange, white, pink or red colours. Thecapitulum, which has the appearance of a single flower, is actuallycomposed of hundreds of individual flowers. The morphology of theflowers varies depending on their position in the capitulum. Theflower heads can be as small as 7 cm (Gerbera mini 'Harley') indiameter or up to 12 cm (Gerbera ‘Golden Serena’).Gerbera is very popular and widely used as a decorative gardenplant or as cut flowers. The domesticated cultivars are mostly aresult of a cross between Gerbera jamesonii and another SouthAfrican species Gerbera viridifolia.[4] The cross is known asGerbera hybrida. Thousands of cultivars exist. They vary greatly inshape and size. Colours include white, yellow, orange, red, andpink. The centre of the flower is sometimes black. Often the sameflower can have petals of several different colours.Gerbera is also important commercially. It is the fifth most usedcut flower in the world (after rose, carnation, chrysanthemum, andtulip). It is also used as a model organism in studying flowerformation.Gerbera contains naturally occurring coumarin derivatives. Gerberais a tender perennial plant. It is attractive to bees, butterfliesand/or birds, but resistant to deer.[5] Their soil should be keptmoist but not soaked.