Children Puzzle 1.23
Biologically, a child (plural: children) isgenerally a human between the stages of birth and puberty.The legal definition of child generally refers to a minor,otherwise known as a person younger than the age ofmajority.Child may also describe a relationship with a parent (such as sonsand daughters of any age) or, metaphorically, an authorityfigure, or signify group membership in a clan, tribe, or religion;it can also signify being strongly affected by a specific time,place, or circumstance, as in "a child of nature" or "a child ofthe Sixties".There are many social issues that affect children, such aschildhood education, bullying, child poverty, dysfunctionalfamilies and in developing countries, hunger. Children can beraised by parents, in a foster care or similar supervisedarrangement, guardians or partially raised in a day carecenter.
Arizona Puzzle 1.23
Arizona (Listeni/ɛrɪˈzoʊnə/; /ærɪˈzoʊnə/)(Navajo: Hoozdo Hahoodzo; O'odham: Alĭ ṣonak) is a state in thesouthwestern region of the United States. It is also part of theWestern United States and of the Mountain West states. It is thesixth largest and the 15th most populous of the 50 states. Itscapital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona is one of the FourCorners states. It has borders with New Mexico, Utah, Nevada,California, and Mexico, and one point in common with thesouthwestern corner of Colorado. Arizona's border with Mexico is389 miles (626 km) long, on the northern border of the Mexicanstates of Sonora and Baja California.Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to beadmitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912. Itwas previously part of the territory of Alta California in NewSpain before being passed down to independent Mexico and laterceded to the United States after the Mexican–American War. Thesouthernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through theGadsden Purchase.Southern Arizona is noted for its desert climate, with very hotsummers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests ofpine, Douglas fir, and spruce trees; the Colorado Plateau; somemountain ranges (such as the San Francisco Mountains); as well aslarge, deep canyons, with much more moderate summer temperaturesand significant winter snowfalls. There are ski resorts in theareas of Flagstaff, Alpine, and Tucson. In addition to the GrandCanyon National Park, there are several national forests, nationalparks, and national monuments. About one-quarter of the state ismade up of Indian Reservations that serve as the home of a numberof Native American tribes.
Gothic architecture Puzzle 1.23
Gothic architecture is a style of architecturethat flourished during the high and late medieval period. Itevolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded byRenaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France andlasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known duringthe period as Opus Francigenum ("French work") with the term Gothicfirst appearing during the later part of the Renaissance. Itscharacteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and theflying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as thearchitecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and churchesof Europe. It is also the architecture of many castles, palaces,town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominentextent, private dwellings.It is in the great churches and cathedrals and in a number of civicbuildings that the Gothic style was expressed most powerfully, itscharacteristics lending themselves to appeals to the emotions,whether springing from faith or from civic pride. A great number ofecclesiastical buildings remain from this period, of which even thesmallest are often structures of architectural distinction whilemany of the larger churches are considered priceless works of artand are listed with UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. For this reasona study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals andchurches.A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England,spread through 19th-century Europe and continued, largely forecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20thcentury.
Church Puzzle 1.23
A church building, often simply called achurch, is a building used for religious activities, particularlyworship services. The term in its architectural sense is most oftenused by Christians to refer to their religious buildings but can beused by other religions. In traditional Christian architecture, thechurch is often arranged in the shape of a Christian cross. Whenviewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented bythe aisle and the junction of the cross is located at the altararea. Towers or domes are often added with the intention ofdirecting the eye of the viewer towards the heavens and inspiringchurch visitors. Modern church buildings have a variety ofarchitectural styles and layouts; many buildings that were designedfor other purposes have now been converted for church use; and,similarly, many original church buildings have been put to otheruses.
Fisherman Puzzle 1.23
A fisherman or fisher is someone who capturesfish and other animals from a body of water, or gathersshellfish.Worldwide, there are about 38 million commercial and subsistencefishermen and fish farmers. The term can also be applied torecreational fishermen and may be used to describe both men andwomen. Fishing has existed as a means of obtaining food since theMesolithic period.Fishing has existed as a means of obtaining food since theMesolithic period. During the time of the Ancient Egyptians,fishermen provided the majority of food for Egyptians. Fishing hadbecome a major means of survival as well as a businessventure.Fishing and the fisherman have also influenced Ancient Egyptianreligion; mullets were worshiped as a sign of the arriving floodseason. Bastet was often manifested in the form of a catfish. Inancient Egyptian literature, the method that Amun used to createthe world is associated with the tilapia's method ofmouth-brooding.
Park Benches Puzzle 1.23
A park is an area of open space provided forrecreational use. It can be in its natural or semi-natural state,or planted, and is set aside for human enjoyment or for theprotection of wildlife or natural habitats. It may consist ofrocks, soil, water, flora and fauna and grass areas, but may alsocontain buildings and other artifacts such as play grounds. Manynatural parks are protected by law.
Taiwan Puzzle 1.23
Taiwan (Listeni/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ Chinese: 臺灣 or 台灣;pinyin: Táiwān; see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC;Chinese: 中華民國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó), is a sovereign state inEast Asia. The Republic of China, originally based in mainlandChina, now governs the island of Taiwan, which makes up over 99% ofits territory,[e] as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and other minorislands. Neighboring states include the People's Republic of Chinato the west, Japan to the east and northeast, and the Philippinesto the south. Taiwan is one of the most densely populated countriesin the world with a population density of 648 people per km² inMarch 2015. Taipei is the seat of the central government, andwhich together with the surrounding cities of New Taipei andKeelung, forms the largest metropolitan area on the island.The island of Taiwan (formerly known as "Formosa") was mainlyinhabited by Taiwanese aborigines until the Dutch and Spanishsettlement during the Age of Discovery in the 17th century, whenHan Chinese began immigrating to the island. In 1662, the pro-Mingloyalist Koxinga expelled the Dutch and established the first HanChinese polity on the island, the Kingdom of Tungning. The Qingdynasty of China later defeated the kingdom and annexed Taiwan. Bythe time Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895, the majority ofTaiwan's inhabitants were Han Chinese either by ancestry or byassimilation. The Republic of China (ROC) was established inmainland China in 1912. After Japan's surrender in 1945, the ROCassumed its control of Taiwan. Following the Chinese civil war, theCommunist Party of China took full control of mainland China andfounded the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. The ROCrelocated its government to Taiwan, and its jurisdiction becamelimited to Taiwan and its surrounding islands. Despite this, theROC continued to represent China at the United Nations until 1971,when the PRC assumed China's seat via Resolution 2758 and the ROClost its UN membership. International recognition of the ROC hasgradually eroded as most countries switched recognition to the PRC.21 UN member states and the Holy See currently maintain officialdiplomatic relations with the ROC. It has unofficial ties with mostother states via its representative offices.Ongoing issues of Cross-Strait relations as well as politicalstatus of Taiwan are major factors of contention in Taiwanesepolitics and a cause of social and political division amongpolitical parties and their respective supporters within thecountry. Constitutionally, there is dispute over whether the ROCstill lays claim to the sovereignty over all of "China," in adefinition that includes mainland China and Outer Mongolia basingon its pre-1949 territories, but the ROC has not made retakingmainland China a political goal since 1992. However, thegovernment's stance on defining its political position of relationwith China largely depends on which political coalition is incharge. Meanwhile, the PRC also asserts itself to be the sole legalrepresentation of China and claims Taiwan as its 23rd province tobe under its sovereignty, denying the status and existence of ROCas a sovereign state. The PRC has threatened the use of militaryforce as a response to any formal declaration of Taiwaneseindependence, or if it deems peaceful reunification no longerpossible.During the latter half of the 20th century, Taiwan experiencedrapid economic growth and industrialization and is now an advancedindustrial economy. In the 1980s and early 1990s, Taiwan evolvedinto a multi-party democracy with universal suffrage. Taiwan is oneof the Four Asian Tigers and a member of the WTO and APEC. The21st-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays akey role in the global economy. Taiwan is ranked highly in terms offreedom of the press, health care, public education, economicfreedom, and human development.
Hong Kong Puzzle 1.23
Hong Kong (香港, see Name section),alternatively known by its initials H.K., is situated on China'ssouth coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South ChinaSea. The city is known for its expansive skyline and deepnatural harbour. With a land mass of 1,104 km2 (426 sq mi) and apopulation of over seven million people, Hong Kong is one of themost densely populated areas in the world. Hong Kong'spopulation is 93.6% ethnic Chinese and 6.4% from other groups.Hong Kong's Cantonese-speaking majority originate mainly from theneighbouring Canton (now Guangdong) province, from which manyof them fled to escape wars and Communist rule in China from the1930s to the 1960s.Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after the FirstOpium War (1839–42). The Hong Kong Island was first ceded to the UKin perpetuity, followed by Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and then theNew Territories was put under lease in 1898. It was occupied byJapan during the Pacific War (1941–45), after which the Britishresumed control until 1997, when China resumed sovereignty.The region espoused minimum government intervention under the ethosof positive non-interventionism during the colonial era. Thetime period greatly influenced the current culture of Hong Kong,often described as "East meets West", and the educationalsystem, which used to loosely follow the system in Englanduntil reforms implemented in 2009.On 1 July 1997, Hong Kong became the first Special AdministrativeRegion of the People's Republic of China, under the principle of"one country, two systems" (the other, Macau, attained that statusin December 1999). It has a different political system frommainland China. Hong Kong's independent judiciary functionsunder the common law framework. Hong Kong Basic Law, itsconstitutional document, which stipulates that Hong Kong shall havea "high degree of autonomy" in all matters except foreign relationsand military defence, governs its political system.Although it has a burgeoning multi-party system, a small-circleelectorate controls half of its legislature. The head of thegovernment, the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, is chosen by anElection Committee of 400 to 1,200 members, a situation that willbe in effect during the first 20 years of Chineserule.Hong Kong is a world city. It is one of the Alpha+ cities. Also, aTime Magazine article in 2008 coined the phrase "Nylonkong", whichreferred to New York City, London and Hong Kong, that these threecities form a global network that facilitates the global economy.As Hong Kong ranks the third most important leading internationalfinancial centre, after London and New York City, Hong Kong has amajor capitalist service economy characterised by low taxation andfree trade, and the currency, Hong Kong dollar, is the eighth mosttraded currency in the world. The lack of space caused demandfor denser constructions, which developed the city to a centre formodern architecture and the world's most vertical city.Hong Kong has one of the highest per capita incomes in theworld. The dense space also led to a highly developedtransportation network with the public transport travelling rateexceeding 90 percent, the highest in the world. Hong Konghas numerous high international rankings in various aspects. Forinstance, its economic freedom, financial and economiccompetitiveness, quality of life, corruption perception,Human Development Index are all ranked highly. According toestimates from both UN and WHO, Hong Kong had the longest lifeexpectancy of any region in the world in 2012. Hong Kong alsohas the highest average IQ score in 81 countries around theworld.
Fireworks Puzzle 1.23
Fireworks are a class of explosive pyrotechnicdevices used for aesthetic, cultural, and religious purposes. Afireworks event (also called a fireworks show or pyrotechnics) is adisplay of the effects produced by firework devices. Fireworkscompetitions are also regularly held at a number of places.Fireworks take many forms to produce the four primary effects:noise, light, smoke and floating materials (confetti for example.)They may be designed to burn with flames and sparks of many colors,typically red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, , silver andgold. Displays are common throughout the world and are the focalpoint of many cultural and religious celebrations.The earliest documentation of fireworks dates back to 7th centuryChina, where they were invented. The fireworks were used toaccompany many festivities. It is a part of the culture of Chinaand had its origin there; eventually it spread to other culturesand societies. Important events and festivities such as theSpring Festival (Chinese New Year) and the Mid-Autumn Festival wereand still are times when fireworks are guaranteed sights. China isthe largest manufacturer and exporter of fireworks in theworld.Fireworks are generally classified as to where they perform, eitheras a ground or aerial firework. In the latter case they may providetheir own propulsion (skyrocket) or be shot into the air by amortar (aerial shell). The most common feature of fireworks is apaper or pasteboard tube or casing filled with the combustiblematerial, often pyrotechnic stars. A number of these tubes or casesare often combined so as to make, when kindled, a great variety ofsparkling shapes, often variously colored. The skyrocket is acommon form of firework, although the first skyrockets were used inwar. Such rocket technology has also been used for the delivery ofmail by rocket and is used as propulsion for most model rockets.The aerial shell is the backbone of today's commercial aerialdisplay. A smaller version for consumer use is known as thefestival ball in the United States. There are also ground fireworkswhich, while less popular than aerial fireworks, can producevarious shapes, like rotating circles, stars and 3Dglobes.
Squirrel Puzzle 1.23
Squirrels belong to family Sciuridae of smallor medium-size rodents. The family includes tree squirrels, groundsquirrels, chipmunks, marmots (including woodchucks), flyingsquirrels, and prairie dogs. Squirrels are indigenous to theAmericas, Eurasia, and Africa, and have been introduced toAustralia. The earliest known squirrels date from the Eocene andare most closely related to the mountain beaver and to the dormouseamong living rodent families.
Infant Puzzle 1.23
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning"unable to speak" or "speechless") is the very young offspring of ahuman or animal. When applied to humans, the term is usuallyconsidered synonymous with baby or bairn (Scotland), but the latteris commonly applied to the young of any animal. When a human childlearns to walk, the term toddler may be used instead.The term infant is typically applied to young children between theages of 1 month and 12 months; however, definitions may varybetween birth and 1 year of age, or even between birth and 2 yearsof age. A newborn is an infant who is only hours, days, or up to afew weeks old. In medical contexts, newborn or neonate (from Latin,neonatus, newborn) refers to an infant in the first 28 days afterbirth; the term applies to premature infants, postmatureinfants, and full term infants. Before birth, the term fetus isused.
Message Bottle Puzzle 1.23
A message in a bottle is a form ofcommunication whereby a message is sealed in a container(archetypically a glass bottle, but could be any medium, so long asit floats and remains waterproof) and released into the sea orocean. Among other purposes they are used for scientific studies ofocean currents.The first recorded messages in bottles were released around 310 BCby the Ancient Greek philosopher Theophrastus, as part of anexperiment to show that the Mediterranean Sea was formed by theinflowing Atlantic Ocean.[unreliable source]On his return to Spain following his first voyage to the New World,Christopher Columbus's ship entered a severe storm. Columbus threwa report of his discovery along with a note asking it to be passedon to the Queen of Castile, in a sealed cask into the sea, hopingthe news would make it back even if he did not survive. In fact,Columbus survived and the sealed report was never found, or, atleast, its discovery never reported.[verification needed]In the 16th century, the English navy, among others, used bottlemessages to send ashore information about enemy positions. QueenElizabeth I even created an official position of "Uncorker of OceanBottles", and anyone else opening the bottles could face the deathpenalty.[dubious – discuss]In 1784 Chunosuke Matsuyama sent a message detailing his and 43shipmates' shipwrecking in a bottle that washed ashore and wasfound by a Japanese seaweed collector in 1935, in the village ofHiraturemura, the birthplace of Chunosuke Matsuyama.Since 1876, people have often used messages adrift in containers tocommunicate from the remote Scottish island of St Kilda. In 1914, British World War I soldier Private Thomas Hughes tossed agreen ginger beer bottle containing a letter to his wife into theEnglish Channel. He was killed two days later fighting in France.In 1999, fisherman Steve Gowan dredged up the bottle in the RiverThames. Although the intended recipient of the letter had died in1979, it was delivered in 1999 to Private Hughes' 86-year olddaughter living in New Zealand.In February 1916 the doomed crew of Zeppelin L 19 dropped theirlast messages to their superiors and loved ones into the North Sea.These washed up on the Kattegat coast near Gothenburg, Sweden sixmonths later.In December 1945, American World War II veteran Frank Hayostektossed a bottle over the side of his ship. It was recovered by anIrish milk maid, Breda O'Sullivan who set off an exchange ofletters that lasted seven years before the two finally met amid aninternational media circus. Despite (or perhaps because of) themedia attention, the two were never able to get their romance offthe ground.In May 2005 eighty-eight shipwrecked migrants were rescued off thecoast of Costa Rica. They had placed an SOS message in a bottle andtied it to one of the long lines of a passing fishingboat.On June 10, 1914, a scientist from the Glasgow (Scotland) School ofNavigation cast 1,890 bottles into the ocean to test undercurrentsin the seas around Scotland. One of those bottles was recovered in2012, and was confirmed by Guinness World Records to be the oldestmessage in a bottle ever found—98 years. The bottle was foundeast of Shetland by Andrew Leaper, skipper of the Shetland-basedvessel Copious, the same fishing vessel involved in the previousrecord recovery.That previous record was a find that spent 92 years 229 days atsea. A bottom drift bottle, numbered 423B, was released at 60° 50'N00° 38'W (about halfway between Aberdeen, Scotland and the coast ofDenmark) on April 25, 1914 and recovered by fisherman Mark Andersonof Bixter, Shetland, UK, on December 10, 2006.
Gray Wolf Puzzle 1.23
The gray wolf or grey wolf (Canis lupus[a])also known as the timber wolf, or western wolf,[b] is a canidnative to the wilderness and remote areas of North America,Eurasia, and northern, eastern and western Africa. It is thelargest extant member of its family, with males averaging 43–45 kg(95–99 lb), and females 36–38.5 kg (79–85 lb). Like the redwolf, it is distinguished from other Canis species by its largersize and less pointed features, particularly on the ears andmuzzle. Its winter fur is long and bushy, and predominantly amottled gray in color, although nearly pure white, red, or brown toblack also occur. As of 2005, 37 subspecies of C. lupus arerecognised by MSW3. The nominate subspecies is the Eurasian wolf(Canis lupus lupus), also known as the common wolf.The gray wolf is the second most specialised member of the genusCanis, after the Ethiopian wolf, as demonstrated by itsmorphological adaptations to hunting large prey, its moregregarious nature, and its highly advanced expressivebehavior. It is nonetheless closely related enough tosmaller Canis species, such as the eastern wolf, coyote andgolden jackal to produce fertile hybrids. Its closestrelative is the domestic dog, with which it shared a commonEuropean ancestor which likely diverged 14,900 years ago. It isthe only species of Canis to have a range encompassing both the Oldand New Worlds, and originated in Eurasia during thePleistocene, colonizing North America on at least three separateoccasions during the Rancholabrean. It is a social animal,travelling in nuclear families consisting of a mated pair,accompanied by the pair's adult offspring. The gray wolf istypically an apex predator throughout its range, with only humansand tigers posing a serious threat to it. It feedsprimarily on large ungulates, though it also eats smaller animals,livestock, carrion, and garbage.The gray wolf is one of the world's best known and well researchedanimals, with probably more books written about it than any otherwildlife species. It has a long history of association withhumans, having been despised and hunted in most pastoralcommunities due to its attacks on livestock, while conversely beingrespected in some agrarian and hunter-gatherer societies.Although the fear of wolves is pervasive in many human societies,the majority of recorded attacks on people have been attributed toanimals suffering from rabies. Non-rabid wolves have attacked andkilled people, mainly children, but this is unusual, as wolves arerelatively few, live away from people, and have been taught to fearhumans by hunters and shepherd
Snail Puzzle 1.23
Snail is a common name that is applied mostoften to land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod molluscs.However, the common name "snail" is also applied to most of themembers of the molluscan class Gastropoda that have a coiled shellthat is large enough for the animal to retract completely into.When the word "snail" is used in this most general sense, itincludes not just land snails but also thousands of species of seasnails and freshwater snails. Occasionally a few other molluscsthat are not actually gastropods, such as the Monoplacophora, whichsuperficially resemble small limpets, may also informally bereferred to as "snails".Snail-like animals that naturally lack a shell, or have only aninternal shell, are usually called slugs, and land snails that haveonly a very small shell (that they cannot retract into) are oftencalled semislugs.
California Puzzle 1.23
California (Listeni/ˌkælɨˈfɔrnjə/) is a statelocated on the West Coast of the United States. It is the mostpopulous U.S. state, with 38 million people, one in eight of thepeople who live in the U.S, and the third largest state by area(after Alaska and Texas). California is bordered by Oregon to thenorth, Nevada to the east, Arizona to the southeast, and theMexican state of Baja California to the south. It contains thenation's second most populous census statistical area (Greater LosAngeles Area) and the fifth most populous (San Francisco Bay Area),and eight of the nation's 50 most populated cities (Los Angeles,San Diego, San Jose, San Francisco, Fresno, Sacramento, Long Beach,and Oakland). Sacramento has been state capital since1854.What is now California was first settled by various Native Americantribes before being explored by a number of European expeditionsduring the 16th and 17th centuries. It was then claimed by theSpanish Empire as part of Alta California in the larger territoryof New Spain. Alta California became a part of Mexico in 1821following its successful war for independence, but was ceded to theUnited States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War. The westernportion of Alta California was organized as the State ofCalifornia, which was admitted as the 31st state on September 9,1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramaticsocial and demographic change, with large-scale immigration fromthe east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom.California's diverse geography ranges from the Sierra Nevada in theeast to the Pacific Coast in the west, from the Redwood–Douglas firforests of the northwest, to the Mojave Desert areas in thesoutheast. The center of the state is dominated by the CentralValley, a major agricultural area. California contains both thehighest point (Mount Whitney) and the lowest point (Death Valley),in the contiguous United States and it has the 3rd longestcoastline of all states (after Alaska and Florida). Earthquakes arecommon because of the state's location along the Pacific Ring ofFire. About 37,000 earthquakes are recorded each year, but most aretoo small to be felt.At least half of the fruit produced in the United States is nowgrown in California, and the state also leads in the production ofvegetables. Other important contributors to the state's economyinclude aerospace, education, manufacturing, and high-techindustry. If it were a country, California would be the 8th or 9thlargest economy in the world and the 34th most populous.
Spiny lobster Puzzle 1.23
Spiny lobsters, also known as langouste orrock lobsters, are a family (Palinuridae) of about 60 species ofachelate crustaceans, in the Decapoda Reptantia. Spiny lobsters arealso, especially in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and TheBahamas, sometimes called crayfish, sea crayfish or crawfish("kreef" in South Africa), terms which elsewhere are reserved forfreshwater crayfish.
Tokyo Night Puzzle 1.23
Tokyo (東京 Tōkyō?, "Eastern Capital")(Japanese: [toːkʲoː], English /ˈtoʊki.oʊ/), officially TokyoMetropolis (東京都 Tōkyō-to?), is one of the 47 prefectures ofJapan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the GreaterTokyo Area, and the most populous metropolitan area in theworld. It is the seat of the Japanese government and theImperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family.Tokyo is in the Kantō region on the southeastern side of the mainisland Honshu and includes the Izu Islands and OgasawaraIslands. Tokyo Metropolis was formed in 1943 from the merger ofthe former Tokyo Prefecture (東京府 Tōkyō-fu?) and the city of Tokyo(東京市 Tōkyō-shi?).Tokyo is often referred to and thought of as a city, but isofficially known as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs froma city. The Tokyo metropolitan government administers the 23Special Wards of Tokyo (each governed as an individual city), whichcover the area that was formerly the City of Tokyo before it mergedand became the subsequent metropolitan prefecture in 1943. Themetropolitan government also administers 39 municipalities in thewestern part of the prefecture and the two outlying island chains.The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, withthe total population of the prefecture exceeding 13 million. Theprefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan areawith upwards of 35 million people and the world's largest urbanagglomeration economy.The city hosts 51 of the Fortune Global 500companies, the highest number of any city.The city is considered an alpha+ world city, listed by the GaWC's2008 inventory and ranked fourth among global cities by A.T.Kearney's 2012 Global Cities Index. In 2013, Tokyo was namedthe third most expensive city for expatriates, according to theMercer consulting firm, and the world's most expensive city,according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-livingsurvey. In 2009 Tokyo was named the third Most Liveable Cityand the World’s Most Livable Megalopolis by the magazineMonocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the mostMichelin stars of any city in the world.Tokyo hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1964, and is scheduled tohost the games again in 2020.
Italy Puzzle 1.23
Italy Listeni/ˈɪtəli/ (Italian: Italia[iˈtaːlja]), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblicaitaliana), is a unitary parliamentary republic inSouthern Europe. To the north, Italy borders France, Switzerland,Austria, and Slovenia, and is approximately delimited by the Alpinewatershed, enclosing the Po Valley and the Venetian Plain. To thesouth, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula and thetwo biggest Mediterranean islands of Sicily and Sardinia.Italian territory also includes the islands of Pantelleria, 60 km(37 mi) east of the Tunisian coast and 100 km (62 mi) southwest ofSicily, and Lampedusa, at about 113 km (70 mi) from Tunisia and at176 km (109 mi) from Sicily, in addition to many other smallerislands. The sovereign states of San Marino and the Vatican Cityare enclaves within Italy, while Campione d'Italia is an Italianexclave in Switzerland. Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2(116,347 sq mi) and has a largely temperate climate. With 60million inhabitants, it is the 5th most populous country in Europe.Italy is also the 4th-largest economy in the European Union, 3rd inthe Eurozone and 9th in the world (IMF, 2012).Italy's capital and largest city, Rome, has for centuries been theleading political and religious centre of Western civilisation,serving as the capital of both the Roman Empire and Christianity.During the Dark Ages, Italy endured cultural and social decline inthe face of repeated invasions by Germanic tribes, with Romanheritage being preserved largely by Christian monks. Beginningaround the 11th century, various Italian cities, communes andmaritime republics rose to great prosperity through shipping,commerce and banking (indeed, modern capitalism has its roots inMedieval Italy); concurrently, Italian culture flourished,especially during the Renaissance, which produced many notablescholars, artists, and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci,Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. Meanwhile, Italian explorerssuch as Polo, Columbus, Vespucci, and Verrazzano discovered newroutes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in theEuropean Age of Discovery. Nevertheless, Italy would remainfragmented into numerous warring states for the rest of the MiddleAges, subsequently falling prey to larger European powers such asFrance, Spain, and later Austria. Italy would thus enter a longperiod of decline that lasted until the beginning of the 18thcentury.After many unsuccessful attempts, the second and the third wars ofItalian independence resulted in the unification of most ofpresent-day Italy between 1859 and 1866. From the late 19thcentury to the early 20th century, the new Kingdom of Italy rapidlyindustrialized and acquired a colonial empire becoming a GreatPower. However, Southern and rural Italy remained largelyexcluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influentialdiaspora. Despite victory in World War I as one of the Big Fourwith permanent membership in the security council of the League ofNations, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and socialturmoil, which favoured the establishment of a Fascist dictatorshipin 1922. The subsequent participation in World War II, at the sideof Nazi Germany and Japan forming the Axis Alliance, ended inmilitary defeat, economic destruction and civil war. In the yearsthat followed, Italy abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy,and enjoyed a prolonged economic boom, thus becoming one of themost developed nations in the world, with thefifth largest economy by nominal GDP by the early 1990s. Italy wasa founding member of NATO in 1949 and one of the Inner Six of theEuropean Community in 1957, which became the EU in 1993. It is partof the Schengen Area, and has been a member of the Eurozone since1999.
Food Puzzle 1.23
Food is any substance consumed to providenutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animalorigin, and contains essential nutrients, such as fats, proteins,vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism andassimilated by the organism's cells to provide energy, maintainlife, or stimulate growth.Historically, people secured food through two methods: hunting andgathering, and agriculture. Today, most of the food energy requiredby the ever increasing population of the world is supplied by thefood industry.Food safety and food security are monitored by agencies like theInternational Association for Food Protection, World ResourcesInstitute, World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization,and International Food Information Council. They address issuessuch as sustainability, biological diversity, climate change,nutritional economics, population growth, water supply, and accessto food.The right to food is a human right derived from the InternationalCovenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR),recognizing the "right to an adequate standard of living, includingadequate food," as well as the "fundamental right to be free fromhunger."
Owl Puzzle 1.23
Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes,which includes about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnalbirds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head,binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons and feathersadapted for silent flight. Exceptions include the diurnal northernhawk-owl and the gregarious burrowing owl.Owls hunt mostly small mammals, insects, and other birds although afew species specialize in hunting fish. They are found in allregions of the Earth except Antarctica and some remoteislands.Owls are divided into two families: the true owls or typical owls,Strigidae; and the barn-owls, Tytonidae.
Taipei 101 Puzzle 1.23
Taipei 101 (Chinese: 臺北101 / 台北101), formerlyknown as the Taipei World Financial Center, is a landmark supertallskyscraper in Xinyi District, Taipei, Taiwan. The building wasofficially classified as the world's tallest in 2004, and remainedsuch until the opening of Burj Khalifa in Dubai in 2010. In July2011, the building was awarded the LEED Platinum certification, thehighest award according the Leadership in Energy and EnvironmentalDesign (LEED) rating system, and became the tallest and largestgreen building in the world. Taipei 101 was designed by C.Y. Lee& partners and constructed primarily by KTRT JointVenture. The construction started in 1999 and finished in2004. The tower has served as an icon of modern Taiwan ever sinceits opening. Fireworks launched from Taipei 101 feature prominentlyin international New Year's Eve broadcasts and the structureappears frequently in travel literature and internationalmedia.Taipei 101 comprises 101 floors above ground and 5 floorsunderground. The building was architecturally created as a symbolof the evolution of technology and Asian tradition (see Symbolism).Its postmodernist approach to style incorporates traditional designelements and gives them modern treatments. The tower is designed towithstand typhoons and earthquakes. A multi-level shopping malladjoining the tower houses hundreds of stores, restaurants andclubs.Taipei 101 is owned by Taipei Financial Center Corp. (TFCC) andmanaged by the International division of Urban Retail PropertiesCorporation based in Chicago. The name originally planned for thebuilding, Taipei World Financial Center, until 2003, was derivedfrom the name of the owner. The original name in Chinese wasliterally Taipei International Financial Center (Chinese:臺北國際金融中心).
Pen Puzzle 1.23
A pen (Latin: penna, feather) is a writingimplement used to apply ink to a surface, such as paper, forwriting or drawing. Historically, reed pens, quill pens, and dippens were used, with a nib dipped in ink. Ruling pens allow preciseadjustment of line width, and still find a few specialized uses,but technical pens such as the Rapidograph are more commonly used.Modern types also include ballpoint, rollerball, fountain, and feltor ceramic tip pens.ModernThe main modern types of pens can be categorized by the kind ofwriting tip or point:A ballpoint pen dispenses ink by rolling a small hard sphere,usually 0.7–1.2 mm and made of brass, steel or tungsten carbide.The ink dries almost immediately on contact with paper. Theballpoint pen is usually reliable and comes in both inexpensive andexpensive types. It has replaced the fountain pen as the mostcommon tool for everyday writing.A fountain pen uses water-based liquid ink delivered through a nib.The ink flows from a reservoir through a "feed" to the nib, thenthrough the nib, due to capillary action and gravity. The nib hasno moving parts and delivers ink through a thin slit to the writingsurface. A fountain pen reservoir can be refillable or disposable,this disposable type being an ink cartridge. A pen with arefillable reservoir may have a mechanism, such as a piston, todraw ink from a bottle through the nib, or it may require refillingwith an eyedropper. Refill reservoirs, also known as cartridgeconverters, are available for some pens which use disposablecartridges.A marker, or felt-tip pen, has a porous tip of fibrous material.The smallest, finest-tipped markers are used for writing on paper.Medium-tip markers are often used by children for coloring anddrawing. Larger markers are used for writing on other surfaces suchas corrugated boxes, whiteboards and for chalkboards, often called"liquid chalk" or "chalkboard markers." Markers with wide tips andbright but transparent ink, called highlighters, are used to markexisting text. Markers designed for children or for temporarywriting (as with a whiteboard or overhead projector) typically usenon-permanent inks. Large markers used to label shipping cases orother packages are usually permanent markers.A rollerball pen dispenses a water-based liquid or gel ink througha ball tip similar to that of a ballpoint pen. The less-viscous inkis more easily absorbed by paper than oil-based ink, and the penmoves more easily across a writing surface. The rollerball pen wasinitially designed to combine the convenience of a ballpoint penwith the smooth "wet ink" effect of a fountain pen. Gel inks areavailable in a range of colors, including metallic paint colors,glitter effects, neon, blurred effects, saturated colors, pasteltones, vibrant shades, shady colors, invisible ink, see-througheffect, shiny colors, and glow-in-the-dark effects.
Beluga whale Puzzle 1.23
The beluga whale or white whale(Delphinapterus leucas) is an Arctic and sub-Arctic cetacean. It isone of two members of the family Monodontidae, along with thenarwhal, and the only member of the genus Delphinapterus. Thismarine mammal is commonly referred to simply as the melonhead,beluga or sea canary due to its high-pitched twitter.It is adapted to life in the Arctic, so has anatomical andphysiological characteristics that differentiate it from othercetaceans. Amongst these are its unmistakable all-white colour andthe absence of a dorsal fin. It possesses a distinctiveprotuberance at the front of its head which houses an echolocationorgan called the melon, which in this species is large and plastic(deformable). The beluga's body size is between that of a dolphin'sand a true whale’s, with males growing up to 5.5 m (18 ft) long andweighing up to 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). This whale has a stocky body;it has the greatest percentage of blubber. Its sense of hearing ishighly developed and it possesses echolocation, which allows it tomove about and find blowholes under sheet ice.Belugas are gregarious and they form groups of up to 10 animals onaverage, although during the summer months, they can gather in thehundreds or even thousands in estuaries and shallow coastal areas.They are slow swimmers, but can dive down to 700 m (2,300 ft) belowthe surface. They are opportunistic feeders and their diets varyaccording to their locations and the season. They mainly eat fish,crustaceans and other deep-sea invertebrates.The majority of belugas live in the Arctic and the seas and coastsaround North America, Russia and Greenland; their worldwidepopulation is thought to number around 150,000. They are migratoryand the majority of groups spend the winter around the Arctic icecap; when the sea ice melts in summer, they move to warmer riverestuaries and coastal areas. Some populations are sedentary and donot migrate over great distances during the year.The native peoples of North America and Russia have hunted belugasfor many centuries. They were also hunted commercially during the19th century and part of the 20th century. Whale hunting has beenunder international control since 1973. Currently, only certainInuit groups are allowed to carry out subsistence hunting ofbelugas. Other threats include natural predators (polar bears andkiller whales), contamination of rivers, and infectiousdiseases.From a conservation perspective, the beluga was placed on theInternational Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List in 2008as being "near threatened"; the subpopulation from the Cook Inletin Alaska is considered Critically Endangered and is under theprotection of the United States' Endangered Species Act. Ofseven Canadian beluga populations, the two inhabiting easternHudson Bay and Ungava Bay are listed as endangered.Belugas are one of the cetaceans most commonly kept in captivity inaquariums and wildlife parks in North America, Europe and Asia;they are popular with the public due to their colour andexpression.
Ancient Egypt Puzzle 1.23
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization ofNortheastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of theNile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. It is one ofsix civilizations globally to arise independently. Egyptiancivilization coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventionalEgyptian chronology) with the political unification of Upper andLower Egypt under the first pharaoh. The history of ancientEgypt occurred in a series of stable Kingdoms, separated by periodsof relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the OldKingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the MiddleBronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power during the New Kingdom, inthe Ramesside period where it rivalled the Hittite Empire, AssyrianEmpire and Mitanni Empire, after which it entered a period of slowdecline. Egypt was invaded or conquered by a succession of foreignpowers (such as the Canaanites/Hyksos, Libyans, Nubians, Assyria,Babylonia, Achaemenids and Macedonian Greece) in the ThirdIntermediate Period of Egypt and Late Period. In the aftermath ofAlexander the Great's death, one of his generals, Ptolemy Soter,established himself as the new ruler of Egypt. This Greek PtolemaicDynasty ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it fell tothe Roman Empire and became a Roman province.The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from itsability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley. Thepredictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertilevalley produced surplus crops, which supported a more densepopulation, and social development and culture. With resources tospare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of thevalley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of anindependent writing system, the organization of collectiveconstruction and agricultural projects, trade with surroundingregions, and a military intended to defeat foreign enemies andassert Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing theseactivities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders,and administrators under the control of a pharaoh, who ensured thecooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of anelaborate system of religious beliefs.The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include thequarrying, surveying and construction techniques that supported thebuilding of monumental pyramids, temples, and obelisks; a system ofmathematics, a practical and effective system of medicine,irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques, thefirst known ships, Egyptian faience and glass technology, newforms of literature, and the earliest known peace treaty, made withHittites. Egypt left a lasting legacy. Its art and architecturewere widely copied, and its antiquities carried off to far cornersof the world. Its monumental ruins have inspired the imaginationsof travelers and writers for centuries. A new-found respect forantiquities and excavations in the early modern period by Europeansand Egyptians led to the scientific investigation of Egyptiancivilization and a greater appreciation of its culturallegacy.
Chocolate Puzzle 1.23
Chocolate Listeni/ˈtʃɒk(ə)lət/ is a processed,typically sweetened food produced from the seed of the tropicalTheobroma cacao tree. Cacao has been cultivated for at least threemillennia in Mexico and Central America. Its earliest documenteduse is around 1100 BC by the Olmecs in south central Mexico. Themajority of the Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages,including the Mayans and the Aztecs, who made it into a beverageknown as xocolātl [ʃoˈkolaːt͡ɬ], a Nahuatl word meaning "bitterwater". The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste,and must be fermented to develop the flavor.
Apple Puzzle 1.23
The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the appletree, species Malus domestica in the rose family (Rosaceae). It isone of the most widely cultivated tree fruits, and the most widelyknown of the many members of genus Malus that are used by humans.Apples grow on small, deciduous trees. The tree originated inCentral Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is stillfound today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asiaand Europe, and were brought to North America by Europeancolonists. Apples have been present in the mythology and religionsof many cultures, including Norse, Greek and Christian traditions.In 2010, the fruit's genome was decoded as part of research ondisease control and selective breeding in apple production.There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in arange of desired characteristics. Different cultivars are bred forvarious tastes and uses, including cooking, fresh eating and ciderproduction. Domestic apples are generally propagated by grafting,although wild apples grow readily from seed. Trees are prone to anumber of fungal, bacterial and pest problems, which can becontrolled by a number of organic and non-organic means.About 69 million tons of apples were grown worldwide in 2010, andChina produced almost half of this total. The United States is thesecond-leading producer, with more than 6% of world production.Turkey is third, followed by Italy, India and Poland. Apples areoften eaten raw, but can also be found in many prepared foods(especially desserts) and drinks. Many beneficial health effectsare thought to result from eating apples; however, two forms ofallergies are seen to various proteins found in the fruit.
Egg Puzzle 1.23
An egg is the organic vessel containing thezygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive onits own, at which point the animal hatches. An egg results fromfertilization of an ovum. Most arthropods, vertebrates, andmollusks lay eggs, although some do not, such as scorpions and mostmammals.Reptile eggs, bird eggs, and monotreme eggs are laid out of water,and are surrounded by a protective shell, either flexible orinflexible. Eggs laid on land or in nests are usually kept within afavorable temperature range (warm) while the embryo grows. When theembryo is adequately developed it hatches, i.e. breaks out of theegg's shell. Some embryos have a temporary egg tooth with which tocrack, pip, or break the eggshell or covering.The largest recorded egg is from a whale shark, and was 30 × 14 × 9cm (11.8 × 5.5 × 3.5 in) in size; whale shark eggs normallyhatch within the mother. At 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) and up to 17.8 cm × 14cm (7.0 in × 5.5 in), the ostrich egg is the largest egg of anyliving bird, though the extinct elephant bird and some dinosaurslaid larger eggs. The bee hummingbird produces the smallest knownbird egg, which weighs half of a gram (around 0.2 oz). The eggslaid by some reptiles and most fish can be even smaller, and thoseof insects and other invertebrates can be much smaller still.Reproductive structures similar to the egg in other kingdoms aretermed "spores," or in spermatophytes "seeds," or in gametophytes"egg cells".
Pencil Puzzle 1.23
A pencil Listeni/ˈpɛnsəl/ is a writingimplement or art medium usually constructed of a narrow, solidpigment core inside a protective casing which prevents the corefrom being broken or leaving marks on the user’s hand duringuse.Pencils create marks by physical abrasion, leaving behind a trailof solid core material that adheres to a sheet of paper or othersurface. They are distinct from pens, which instead disperse atrail of liquid or gel ink that stains the light colour of thepaper.Most pencil cores are made of graphite mixed with a clay binderwhich leaves grey or black marks that can be easily erased.Graphite pencils are used for both writing and drawing and resultin durable markings: though writing is easily removable with aneraser, it is otherwise resistant to moisture, most chemicals,ultraviolet radiation, and natural aging. Other types of pencilcore are less widely used, such as charcoal pencils, which aremainly used by artists for drawing and sketching. Coloured pencilsare sometimes used by teachers or editors to correct submittedtexts, but are typically regarded as art supplies, especially thosewith waxy core binders that tend to smear on paper instead oferasing. Grease pencils have a softer, crayon-like waxy core thatcan leave marks on smooth surfaces such as glass orporcelain.The most common type of pencil casing is of thin wood, usuallyhexagonal in section but sometimes cylindrical, permanently bondedto the core. Similar permanent casings may be constructed of othermaterials such as plastic or paper. To use the pencil, the casingmust be carved or peeled off to expose the working end of the coreas a sharp point. Mechanical pencils have more elaborate casingswhich support mobile pieces of pigment core that can be extended orretracted through the casing tip as needed.
Lake Tahoe Puzzle 1.23
Lake Tahoe (/ˈtɑːhoʊ/; Washo: dáʔaw) isa large freshwater lake in the Sierra Nevada of the United States.At a surface elevation of 6,225 ft (1,897 m), it is located alongthe border between California and Nevada, west of Carson City. LakeTahoe is the largest alpine lake in North America. Its depth is1,645 ft (501 m), making it the second-deepest in the United States(the deepest is Crater Lake in Oregon at 1,945 ft (593 m), 300 ft(91 m) deeper). Additionally, Lake Tahoe is listed as the 27thlargest lake by volume in the world at 122,160,280 acre·ft(150,682,490 dam3).The lake was formed about 2 million years ago and is a part of theLake Tahoe Basin with the modern lake being shaped during the iceages. It is known for the clarity of its water and the panorama ofsurrounding mountains on all sides. The area surrounding thelake is also referred to as Lake Tahoe, or simply Tahoe. More than75% of the lake's watershed is national forest land, comprising theLake Tahoe Basin Management Unit of the United States ForestService.Lake Tahoe is a major tourist attraction in both Nevada andCalifornia. It is home to a number of ski resorts, summer outdoorrecreation, and tourist attractions. Snow and skiing are asignificant part of the area's economy and reputation.Mountain and lake scenery are attractions throughout the year. TheNevada side also includes large casinos. Highways provideyear-round access from Reno, Carson City, and Sacramento.
Pug Puzzle 1.23
The pug is a toy dog with a wrinkly,short-muzzled face and curled tail. The breed has a fine, glossycoat that comes in a variety of colors, although most often fawn orblack, and a compact square body with well-developed muscles.Pugs were brought from China to Europe in the sixteenth century andwere popularized in Western Europe by the House of Orange of theNetherlands, and the House of Stuart. Pugs as breeding animalsmay have contributed to the English Bulldog, the modern Pekingeseand the King Charles Spaniel.Pugs remain popular into the twenty-first century, with some famouscelebrity owners. A pug was judged Best in Show at the World DogShow in 2004.
Icecream Puzzle 1.23
Ice cream (derived from earlier iced cream orcream ice) is a frozen dessert usually made from dairy products,such as milk and cream and often combined with fruits or otheringredients and flavours. Most varieties contain sugar, althoughsome are made with other sweeteners. In some cases, artificialflavourings and colourings are used in addition to, or instead of,the natural ingredients. The mixture of chosen ingredients isstirred slowly while cooling, in order to incorporate air and toprevent large ice crystals from forming. The result is a smoothlytextured semi-solid foam that is malleable and can bescooped.The meaning of the phrase "ice cream" varies from one country toanother. Phrases such as "frozen custard", "frozen yogurt","sorbet", "gelato" and others are used to distinguish differentvarieties and styles. In some countries, such as the United States,the phrase "ice cream" applies only to a specific variety, and mostgovernments regulate the commercial use of the various termsaccording to the relative quantities of the main ingredients.Products that do not meet the criteria to be called ice cream arelabelled "frozen dairy dessert" instead. In other countries,such as Italy and Argentina, one word is used for all variants.Analogues made from dairy alternatives, such as goat's or sheep'smilk, or milk substitutes, are available for those who are lactoseintolerant, allergic to dairy protein, or vegan. The most popularflavours of ice cream in North America (based on consumer surveys)are vanilla and chocolate.
India Puzzle 1.23
India (Listeni/ˈɪndiə/), officially theRepublic of India (Bharat Ganrajya),[c] is a country in SouthAsia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-mostpopulous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the mostpopulous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on thesouth, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal onthe south-east, it shares land borders with Pakistan to thewest;[d] China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma andBangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in thevicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; in addition, India'sAndaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailandand Indonesia.Home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and a region ofhistoric trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent wasidentified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of itslong history. Four world religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism,and Sikhism—originated here, whereas Judaism, Zoroastrianism,Christianity, and Islam arrived in the 1st millennium CE and alsohelped shape the region's diverse culture. Gradually annexed by andbrought under the administration of the British East India Companyfrom the early 18th century and administered directly by the UnitedKingdom from the mid-19th century, India became an independentnation in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked bynon-violent resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi.The Indian economy is the world's eleventh-largest by nominal GDPand third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Followingmarket-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of thefastest-growing major economies; it is considered a newlyindustrialised country. However, it continues to face thechallenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, inadequate publichealthcare, and terrorism. A nuclear weapons state and a regionalpower, it has the third-largest standing army in the world andranks eighth in military expenditure among nations. India is afederal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentarysystem consisting of 28 states and 7 union territories. India is apluralistic, multilingual, and a multi-ethnic society. It is alsohome to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protectedhabitats.
Gift Puzzle 1.23
A gift or a present is an item given tosomeone without the expectation of payment. Although gift-givingmight involve an expectation of reciprocity, a gift is meant to befree. In many countries, the act of mutually exchanging money,goods, etc. may sustain social relations and contribute to socialcohesion. Economists have elaborated the economics of gift-givinginto the notion of a gift economy. By extension the term gift canrefer to anything that makes the other happier or less sad,especially as a favour, including forgiveness and kindness. Giftsare also first and foremost presented on occasions - birthdays andChristmas being the main examples.
AK47 Puzzle 1.23
The AK-47 is a selective-fire, gas-operated7.62×39mm assault rifle, first developed in the Soviet Union byMikhail Kalashnikov. It is officially known as Avtomat Kalashnikova(Russian: Автомат Калашникова). It is also known as Kalashnikov,AK, or in Russian slang, Kalash.Design work on the AK-47 began in the last year of World War II(1945). After the war in 1946, the AK-46 was presented for officialmilitary trials. In 1948 the fixed-stock version was introducedinto active service with selected units of the Soviet Army. Anearly development of the design was the AKS (S—Skladnoy or"folding"), which was equipped with an underfolding metal shoulderstock. In 1949, the AK-47 was officially accepted by the SovietArmed Forces and used by the majority of the member states ofthe Warsaw Pact. The weapon was supplied to Nicaraguan Sandinistas,Viet Cong as well as Middle Eastern and Asian revolutionaries. Morerecently they have been seen in the hands of Islamic groups such asthe Taliban and Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and Iraq.The original AK-47 was one of the first assault rifles of 2ndgeneration, after the German StG 44. Even after six decades themodel and its variants remain the most widely used and popularassault rifles in the world because of their durability, lowproduction cost, availability, and ease of use. It has beenmanufactured in many countries and has seen service with armedforces as well as irregular forces worldwide. The AK-47 was thebasis for developing many other types of individual and crew-servedfirearms. More AK-type rifles have been produced than all otherassault rifles combined.
Pizza Puzzle 1.23
Pizza is an oven-baked flat bread generallytopped with tomato sauce and cheese. It is commonly supplementedwith a selection of meats, vegetables and condiments. The term wasfirst recorded in AD 997, in a Latin manuscript from the southernItalian town of Gaeta, in Lazio, Central Italy. The modern pizzawas invented in Naples, Italy, and the dish and its variants havesince become popular in many areas of the world.In 2009, upon Italy's request, Neapolitan pizza was safeguarded inthe European Union as a Traditional Speciality Guaranteeddish. The Associazione Verace Pizza Napoletana (AVPN) (theTrue Neapolitan Pizza Association) is a non-profit organizationfounded in 1984 with legal and operational headquarters in Naples.Its mission is to promote and protect the "true Neapolitan pizza"("verace pizza napoletana") defined as the product made inaccordance with the International Regulations for thebrand.Pizza is sold fresh, frozen or in portions. Various types of ovensare used to cook them and many varieties exist. Several similardishes are prepared from ingredients commonly used in pizzapreparation, such as calzone and stromboli.
Chinese Landscape Puzzle 1.23
Landscape comprises the visible features of anarea of land, including the physical elements of landforms such as(ice-capped) mountains, hills, water bodies such as rivers, lakes,ponds and the sea, living elements of land cover includingindigenous vegetation, human elements including different forms ofland use, buildings and structures, and transitory elements such aslighting and weather conditions.Combining both their physical origins and the cultural overlay ofhuman presence, often created over millennia, landscapes reflectthe living synthesis of people and place vital to local andnational identity. Landscapes, their character and quality, helpdefine the self-image of a region, its sense of place thatdifferentiates it from other regions. It is the dynamic backdrop topeople’s lives.The Earth has a vast range of landscapes including the icylandscapes of polar regions, mountainous landscapes, vast ariddesert landscapes, islands and coastal landscapes, densely forestedor wooded landscapes including past boreal forests and tropicalrainforests, and agricultural landscapes of temperate and tropicalregions.Landscape may be further reviewed under the following specificcategories: landscape art, cultural landscape, landscape ecology,landscape planning, landscape assessment and landscape design. Theactivity that modifies the visible features of an area of land isnamed Landscaping.
Heavy Truck Puzzle 1.23
A truck (United States, Canada, Australia, NewZealand, South Africa, called a lorry in the United Kingdom,Ireland, and Indian Subcontinent) is a motor vehicle designed totransport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, andconfiguration, with the smallest being mechanically similar to anautomobile. Commercial trucks can be very large and powerful, andmay be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in thecase of fire trucks and concrete mixers and suctionexcavators.Modern trucks are largely powered by diesel engines, although smallto medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US. In theEuropean Union, vehicles with a gross combination mass of up to3,500 kilograms (7,716 lb) are known as light commercial vehicles,and those over as large goods vehicles.
Bathroom Puzzle 1.23
A bathroom is a room for personal hygiene,generally containing a bathtub or a shower, and possibly also abidet. In North America and some other regions, itcharacteristically contains a toilet and a sink; hence in NorthAmerican English the word "bathroom" is commonly used to mean anyroom containing a toilet, even a public toilet (although in theUnited States this is more commonly called a restroom). In othercountries, including the UK, Australia, France and Japan, homes mayhave a separate toilet. In Iran almost all homes have two distinctrooms for bathroom and toilet room.
Statue of Liberty Puzzle 1.23
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlighteningthe World; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossalneoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in the middle of New YorkHarbor, in Manhattan, New York City. The statue, designed byFrédéric Auguste Bartholdi and dedicated on October 28, 1886, was agift to the United States from the people of France. The statue isof a robed female figure representing Libertas, the Roman goddessof freedom, who bears a torch and a tabula ansata (a tablet evokingthe law) upon which is inscribed the date of the AmericanDeclaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. A broken chain lies ather feet. The statue is an icon of freedom and of the UnitedStates: a welcoming signal to immigrants arriving fromabroad.Bartholdi was inspired by French law professor and politicianÉdouard René de Laboulaye, who is said to have commented in 1865that any monument raised to American independence would properly bea joint project of the French and American peoples. Due to thetroubled political situation in France, work on the statue did notcommence until the early 1870s. In 1875, Laboulaye proposed thatthe French finance the statue and the Americans provide the siteand build the pedestal. Bartholdi completed the head and thetorch-bearing arm before the statue was fully designed, and thesepieces were exhibited for publicity at internationalexpositions.The torch-bearing arm was displayed at the Centennial Exposition inPhiladelphia, in 1876, and in New York's Madison Square Park from1876 to 1882. Fundraising proved difficult, especially for theAmericans, and by 1885 work on the pedestal was threatened due tolack of funds. Publisher Joseph Pulitzer of the New York Worldstarted a drive for donations to complete the project thatattracted more than 120,000 contributors, most of whom gave lessthan a dollar. The statue was constructed in France, shippedoverseas in crates, and assembled on the completed pedestal on whatwas then called Bedloe's Island. The statue's completion was markedby New York's first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremonypresided over by President Grover Cleveland.The statue was administered by the United States Lighthouse Boarduntil 1901 and then by the Department of War; since 1933 it hasbeen maintained by the National Park Service. The statue was closedfor renovation for much of 1938. In the early 1980s, it was foundto have deteriorated to such an extent that a major restoration wasrequired. While the statue was closed from 1984 to 1986, the torchand a large part of the internal structure were replaced. After theSeptember 11 attacks in 2001, it was closed for reasons of safetyand security; the pedestal reopened in 2004 and the statue in 2009,with limits on the number of visitors allowed to ascend to thecrown. The statue, including the pedestal and base, was closed fora year until October 28, 2012, so that a secondary staircase andother safety features could be installed; Liberty Island remainedopen. However, one day after the reopening, Liberty Island closeddue to the effects of Hurricane Sandy; the statue and island openedagain on July 4, 2013. Public access to the balcony surrounding thetorch has been barred for safety reasons since 1916.
Giraffe Puzzle 1.23
The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is anAfrican even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest living terrestrialanimal and the largest ruminant. Its species name refers to itscamel-like appearance and the patches of color on its fur. Itschief distinguishing characteristics are its extremely long neckand legs, its horn-like ossicones, and its distinctive coatpatterns. It stands 5–6 m (16–20 ft) tall and has an average weightof 1,600 kg (3,500 lb) for males and 830 kg (1,830 lb) for females.It is classified under the family Giraffidae, along with itsclosest extant relative, the okapi. The nine subspecies aredistinguished by their coat patterns.The giraffe's scattered range extends from Chad in the north toSouth Africa in the south, and from Niger in the west to Somalia inthe east. Giraffes usually inhabit savannas, grasslands, and openwoodlands. Their primary food source is acacia leaves, which theybrowse at heights most other herbivores cannot reach. Giraffes arepreyed on by lions, and calves are also targeted by leopards,spotted hyenas, and wild dogs. Adult giraffes do not have strongsocial bonds, though they do gather in loose aggregations if theyhappen to be moving in the same general direction. Males establishsocial hierarchies through "necking", which are combat bouts wherethe neck is used as a weapon. Dominant males gain mating access tofemales, which bear the sole responsibility for raising theyoung.The giraffe has intrigued various cultures, both ancient andmodern, for its peculiar appearance, and has often been featured inpaintings, books, and cartoons. It is classified by theInternational Union for Conservation of Nature as Least Concern,but has been extirpated from many parts of its former range, andsome subspecies are classified as Endangered. Nevertheless,giraffes are still found in numerous national parks and gamereserves.
Poppy Puzzle 1.23
A Poppy is a flowering plant in the subfamilyPapaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae. Poppies are herbaceousplants, often grown for their colourful flowers. One species ofpoppy, Papaver somniferum produces edible seeds, and is also thesource of the crude drug opium which contains powerful medicinalalkaloids such as morphine and has been used since ancient times asanalgesic and narcotic medicinal and recreational drugs. Followingthe trench warfare which took place in the poppy fields ofFlanders, during the 1st World War, red poppies have become asymbol of remembrance of soldiers who have died duringwartime.
Taipei Puzzle 1.23
Taipei (/ˌtaɪˈpeɪ/, literally means "North ofTaiwan"), officially known as Taipei City (Chinese: 臺北市 or 台北市;pinyin: Táiběi Shì; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-pak Chhī), is the capital cityand a special municipality of Taiwan. Situated at the northern tipof Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of the municipality of NewTaipei. It is about 25 km (16 mi) southwest of the northern portcity Keelung. The city is mostly located on the Taipei Basin, anancient lakebed bounded by the two relatively narrow valleys of theKeelung and Xindian rivers, which join to form the Tamsui Riveralong the city's western border.The city proper is home to an estimated population of 2,693,672 in2009, forming the core part of the Taipei–Keelung metropolitanarea which includes the nearby cities of New Taipei and Keelungwith a population of 6,900,273, the 40th most-populous urbanarea in the world. The term "Taipei" can be either referred to thewhole metropolitan area or city proper itself.Taipei is the political, economic, educational, and cultural centerof Taiwan, and one of the major hubs of the Chinese-speaking world.Considered to be a global city, Taipei is part of a majorhigh-tech industrial area. Railways, high-speed rail, highways,airports, and bus lines connect Taipei with all parts of theisland. The city is served by two airports – Taipei Songshan andTaiwan Taoyuan. Taipei is home to various world-famousarchitectural or cultural landmarks which include Taipei 101,Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Dalongdong Baoan Temple, Hsing TianKong, Mengjia Longshan Temple, National Palace Museum, PresidentialOffice Building, Ximending, and several Night markets dispersingover the city. Its natural features such as Maokong, Yangmingshan,and hot springs are also well known to internationalvisitors.In political terms, "Taipei" can occasionally be used as asynecdoche regarding the sovereignty of Taiwan. Due to the ongoingcontroversial political status of Taiwan, a designated name ChineseTaipei is in common use when Taiwanese governmental representativesor national teams participate in some international organizations(which may required an UN statehood) in order to avoid extensivepolitical effects by using other names.
Golden Retriever Puzzle 1.23
The Golden Retriever is a large-sized breed ofdog. They were bred as gun dogs to retrieve shot waterfowl such asducks and upland game birds during hunting and shooting parties,and were named retriever because of their ability to retrieve shotgame undamaged. Golden Retrievers have an instinctive love ofwater, and are easy to train to basic or advanced obediencestandards. They are a long-coated breed, with a dense inner coatthat provides them with adequate warmth in the outdoors, and anouter coat that lies flat against their bodies and repels water.Golden Retrievers are well suited to residency in suburban orcountry environments. Although they need substantial outdoorexercise, they should be housed in a fenced area because of theirinstinctual tendency to roam. The dog sheds copiously,particularly at the change of seasons, and requires fairly regulargrooming.The breed is a prominent participant in conformation shows forpurebred dogs. The Golden Retrievers' intelligence makes it aversatile breed and allows it to fill a variety of roles – commonones being guide dog for the blind, hearing dog for the deaf,hunting dog, detection dog, and search and rescue participant. Thebreed's friendly, gentle temperament means it is unsuited to beinga professional guard dog, but its temperament has also made it thethird most popular family dog breed (by registration) in the UnitedStates, the fifth most popular in Australia, and the eighthmost popular in the United Kingdom. Golden Retrievers are rarelychoosy eaters, but require ample exercise (of two or more hours aday). The breed is fond of play but also highly trainable;Augie, a Golden Retriever from Texas, holds the world record forthe most tennis balls held in the mouth by a dog.
Papaver somniferum Puzzle 1.23
Papaver somniferum, the opium poppy, is thespecies of plant from which opium and poppy seeds are derived.Opium is the source of many drugs, including morphine (and itsderivative heroin), thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine.The Latin botanical name means the "sleep-bringing poppy",referring to the sedative properties of some of theseopiates.The opium poppy is the only species of Papaveraceae that is anagricultural crop grown on a large scale. Other species, Papaverrhoeas and Papaver argemone, are important agricultural weeds, andmay be mistaken for the crop.It is also valuable for ornamental purposes, and has been known asthe "common garden poppy", referencing all the group of poppyplants.Poppy seeds of Papaver somniferum are an important food item andthe source of poppyseed oil, a healthy edible oil that has manyuses.
Camera lens Puzzle 1.23
A camera lens (also known as photographic lensor photographic objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lensesused in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make imagesof objects either on photographic film or on other media capable ofstoring an image chemically or electronically.There is no major difference in principle between a lens used for astill camera, a video camera, a telescope, a microscope, or otherapparatus, but the detailed design and construction are different.A lens may be permanently fixed to a camera, or it may beinterchangeable with lenses of different focal lengths, apertures,and other properties.While in principle a simple convex lens will suffice, in practice acompound lens made up of a number of optical lens elements isrequired to correct (as much as possible) the many opticalaberrations that arise. Some aberrations will be present in anylens system. It is the job of the lens designer to balance theseout and produce a design that is suitable for photographic use andpossibly mass production.
Rain Puzzle 1.23
Rain is liquid water in the form of dropletsthat have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and thenprecipitated—that is, become heavy enough to fall under gravity.Rain is a major component of the water cycle and is responsible fordepositing most of the fresh water on the Earth. It providessuitable conditions for many types of ecosystems, as well as waterfor hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation.The major cause of rain production is moisture moving alongthree-dimensional zones of temperature and moisture contrasts knownas weather fronts. If enough moisture and upward motion is present,precipitation falls from convective clouds (those with strongupward vertical motion) such as cumulonimbus (thunder clouds) whichcan organize into narrow rainbands. In mountainous areas, heavyprecipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized withinwindward sides of the terrain at elevation which forces moist airto condense and fall out as rainfall along the sides of mountains.On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due tothe dry air caused by downslope flow which causes heating anddrying of the air mass. The movement of the monsoon trough, orintertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannahclimes.The urban heat island effect leads to increased rainfall, both inamounts and intensity, downwind of cities. Global warming is alsocausing changes in the precipitation pattern globally, includingwetter conditions across eastern North America and drier conditionsin the tropics. Antarctica is the driestcontinent. The globally averaged annual precipitation over land is715 mm (28.1 in), but over the whole Earth it is much higher at 990mm (39 in). Climate classification systems such as the Köppenclimate classification system use average annual rainfall to helpdifferentiate between differing climate regimes. Rainfall ismeasured using rain gauges. Rainfall amounts can be estimated byweather radar.Rain is also known or suspected on other planets, where it may becomposed of methane, neon, sulfuric acid or even iron rather thanwater.
Bald Eagle Puzzle 1.23
The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus; hali= sea, aeetus = eagle, leuco = white, cephalis = head) is a bird ofprey found in North America. A sea eagle, it has two knownsub-species and forms a species pair with the White-tailed Eagle(Haliaeetus albicilla). Its range includes most of Canada andAlaska, all of the contiguous United States, and northern Mexico.It is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant foodsupply and old-growth trees for nesting.The Bald Eagle is an opportunistic feeder which subsists mainly onfish, which it swoops down and snatches from the water with itstalons. It builds the largest nest of any North American bird andthe largest tree nests ever recorded for any animal species, up to4 m (13 ft) deep, 2.5 m (8.2 ft) wide, and 1 metric ton (1.1 shorttons) in weight. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of fourto five years.Bald Eagles are not actually bald; the name derives from an oldermeaning of "white headed". The adult is mainly brown with a whitehead and tail. The sexes are identical in plumage, but females areabout 25 percent larger than males. The beak is large and hooked.The plumage of the immature is brown.The Bald Eagle is both the national bird and national animal of theUnited States of America. The Bald Eagle appears on its Seal. Inthe late 20th century it was on the brink of extirpation in thecontinental United States. Populations recovered and the specieswas removed from the U.S. federal government's list of endangeredspecies on July 12, 1995 and transferred to the list of threatenedspecies. It was removed from the List of Endangered and ThreatenedWildlife in the Lower 48 States on June 28, 2007.
T-72 Tank Puzzle 1.23
The T-72 is a Soviet second-generation mainbattle tank that entered production in 1970. It was developeddirectly from Obyekt-172, and shares parallel features with theT-64A. The T-72 was one of the most widely produced post–WorldWar II tanks, second only to the T-54/55 family, and the basicdesign has also been further developed as the T-90.
Yacht Puzzle 1.23
A yacht /ˈjɒt/ is a recreational boat or ship.The term originated from the Dutch Jacht meaning "hunt".[note 1] Itwas originally defined as a light fast sailing vessel used by theDutch navy to pursue pirates and other transgressors around andinto the shallow waters of the Low Countries. After its selectionby Charles II of England as the vessel to carry him to Britain fromHolland for his restoration in 1660, it came to be used to mean avessel used to convey important persons.In modern use the term designates two rather different classes ofwatercraft, sailing and power boats. Yachts are different fromworking ships mainly by their leisure purpose, and it was not untilthe rise of the steamboat and other types of powerboat that sailingvessels in general came to be perceived as luxury, or recreationalvessels. Later the term came to encompass motor boats for primarilyprivate pleasure purposes as well.Yacht lengths generally range from 10 metres (33 ft) up to dozensof metres (hundreds of feet). A luxury craft smaller than 12 metres(39 ft) is more commonly called a cabin cruiser or simply acruiser. A superyacht generally refers to any yacht (sail or power)above 24 m (79 ft) and a megayacht generally refers to any yachtover 50 metres (164 ft). This size is small in relation to typicalcruise liners and oil tankers.
Bullet Puzzle 1.23
A cartridge (also called a round or a shell)is a type of ammunition packaging a bullet, a propellant substance(usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and a primerwithin a metallic, paper, or plastic case that is precisely made tofit within the firing chamber of a firearm. The primer is asmall charge of an impact-sensitive or electric-sensitive chemicalmixture that can be located at the center of the case head(centerfire ammunition), inside a rim (rimfire ammunition), or in aprojection such as in a pinfire or teat-fire cartridge. Militaryand commercial producers also make caseless ammunition. A cartridgewithout a bullet is called a blank. One that is completely inert(contains no active primer and no propellant) is called adummy.In popular use, the term "bullet" is often misused to refer to acomplete cartridge.