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Pembroke Welsh Corgi Puzzle 1.23
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The Pembroke Welsh Corgi (pron.: /ˈkɔrɡi/) isa herding dog breed, which originated in Pembrokeshire, Wales. Itis one of two breeds known as Welsh Corgi: the other is theCardigan Welsh Corgi. The Pembroke Welsh Corgi is the younger ofthe two Corgi breeds and is a separate and distinct breed[1] fromthe Cardigan. The corgi is one of the smallest dogs in the HerdingGroup. Pembroke Welsh Corgis are famed for being the preferredbreed of Queen Elizabeth II, who has owned more than 30 during herreign.[2] These dogs have been favoured by British royalty for morethan seventy years.The Pembroke Welsh Corgi has been ranked at #11 in Stanley Coren'sThe Intelligence of Dogs, and is thus considered an excellentworking dog. The Pembroke Welsh Corgi was ranked as the 25th mostpopular dog in 2011.
Cambodia Travel Puzzle 1.23
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Cambodia (Listeni/kæmˈboʊdiə/;[7] Khmer:ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, Kampuchea, IPA: [kɑmˈpuˈciə]), officiallyknown as the Kingdom of Cambodia and once known as the KhmerEmpire, is a country located in the southern portion of theIndochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Its total landmass is181,035 square kilometres (69,898 sq mi), bordered by Thailand tothe northwest, Laos to the northeast, Vietnam to the east and theGulf of Thailand to the southwest.With a population of over 14.8 million, Cambodia is the 70th mostpopulous country in the world. The official religion is TheravadaBuddhism, which is practiced by approximately 95% of the Cambodianpopulation. The country's minority groups include Vietnamese,Chinese, Chams and 30 hill tribes.[8] The capital and largest cityis Phnom Penh, the political, economic, and cultural center ofCambodia. The kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with NorodomSihamoni, a monarch chosen by the Royal Throne Council, as head ofstate. The head of government is Hun Sen, who is currently thelongest serving leader in South East Asia and has ruled Cambodiafor over 25 years.Cambodia's ancient name is "Kambuja" (Sanskrit: कंबुज).[9] In 802AD, Jayavarman II declared himself king marking the beginning ofthe Khmer Empire which flourished for over 600 years allowingsuccessive kings to dominate much of Southeast Asia and accumulateimmense power and wealth. The Indianized kingdom built monumentaltemples such as Angkor Wat and facilitated the spread of firstHinduism, then Buddhism to much of Southeast Asia. After the fallof Angkor to Ayutthaya in the 15th century, Cambodia was ruled as avassal between its neighbors until it was colonized by the Frenchin the mid-19th century. Cambodia gained independence in1953.The Vietnam War extended into Cambodia, giving rise to the KhmerRouge, which took Phnom Penh in 1975. Cambodia reemerged severalyears later within a socialistic sphere of influence as thePeople's Republic of Kampuchea until 1993. After years ofisolation, the war-ravaged nation was reunited under the monarchyin 1993 and has seen rapid progress in the economic and humanresource areas while rebuilding from decades of civil war. Cambodiahas had one of the best economic records in Asia, with economicgrowth averaging 6 percent for the last 10 years. Strong textiles,agriculture, construction, garments, and tourism sectors led toforeign investments and international trade.[10] In 2005, oil andnatural gas deposits were found beneath Cambodia's territorialwaters, and once commercial extraction begins in 2013, the oilrevenues could profoundly affect Cambodia's economy.[11]
Delicious Food Puzzle 1.23
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Food is any substance[1] consumed to providenutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animalorigin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates,fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested byan organism and assimilated by the organism's cells in an effort toproduce energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.Historically, people secured food through two methods: hunting andgathering, and agriculture. Today, most of the food energy consumedby the world population is supplied by the food industry.Food safety and food security are monitored by agencies like theInternational Association for Food Protection, World ResourcesInstitute, World Food Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization,and International Food Information Council. They address issuessuch as sustainability, biological diversity, climate change,nutritional economics, population growth, water supply, and accessto food.The right to food is a human right derived from the InternationalCovenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR),recognizing the "right to an adequate standard of living, includingadequate food", as well as the "fundamental right to be free fromhunger".
Rock Climbing Puzzle 1.23
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Rock climbing is an activity in whichparticipants climb up, down or across natural rock formations orartificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of aformation or the endpoint of a pre-defined route without falling.To successfully complete a climb you must return to base safely,due to the length and extended endurance required accidents aremore likely to happen on decent than ascent, especially on thelarger multiple pitches (class III- IV and /or multi-day gradesIV-VI climbs. Rock climbing competitions have objectives ofcompleting the route in the quickest possible time or the farthestalong an increasingly difficult route. Scrambling, another activityinvolving the scaling of hills and similar formations, is similarto rock climbing. However, rock climbing is generallydifferentiated by its sustained use of hands to support theclimber's weight as well as to provide balance.Rock climbing is a physically and mentally demanding sport, onethat often tests a climber's strength, endurance, agility andbalance along with mental control. It can be a dangerous sport andknowledge of proper climbing techniques and usage of specialisedclimbing equipment is crucial for the safe completion of routes.Because of the wide range and variety of rock formations around theworld, rock climbing has been separated into several differentstyles and sub-disciplines.[1] While not an Olympic event, rockclimbing is recognized by the International Olympic Committee as asport.
Motorcycle racing car Puzzle 1.23
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In 1996 Yamaha introduced the Royal Starmotorcycle.[1] This motorcycle uses the basic power package fromthe Yamaha Venture Royale.Other machines using variations of this engine include the RoyalStar Venture, the Royal Star Tour Deluxe, and the V-Max.The Yamaha Royal Star was the first Star Motorcycle Yamahaintroduced. It is a traditional cruiser design, styled after theIndian Motorcycles. A little bit of that Indian flavor remains inthe later Royal Star Venture, and the Royal Star Tour Deluxe.Standard and Tour Classic versions were initially made. TheStandard model had four mufflers and no windscreen or sidebags,though they were available as accessories. The Tour Classic hadfour mufflers, a windscreen, and soft sidebags. In 1997 aTourdeluxe version was introduced. The Tourdeluxe had two mufflers,a windscreen, and hard sidebags.On the Tour Classic and the Tourdeluxe the seat height is 28.5 in(720 mm), the wheelbase is 66.7 in (1,690 mm), with a wet weight of765 lb (347 kg). The Standard model was a little lighter and theseat was a little lower.The drive package on the Royal Star includes a liquid-cooled 1,294cc (79.0 cu in) (referred to as 1,300 cc) V4 engine. It has fourvalves per cylinder, overhead camshafts, and shim over bucketvalves. The five speed overdrive transmission is part of the enginecase and both the engine and transmission share oil. The driveshaft and final drive assembly are built into the left side of thedouble sided swing arm. Swing arm motion is damped by a monoshockmounted horizontally under the center rear of the frame, forward ofthe rear wheel. The clutch is of the wet plate design and ishydraulically activated by the left hand lever. The brake systemuses two disk brakes on the front and one disk on the right rear.All calipers are of four piston design.
Dog Cat Puzzle 1.23
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The domestic cat[1][2] (Felis catus[2] orFelis silvestris catus[4]) is a small, usually furry, domesticated,carnivorous mammal. It is often called the housecat when kept as anindoor pet,[6] or simply the cat when there is no need todistinguish it from other felids and felines. Cats are valued byhumans for companionship and their ability to hunt vermin andhousehold pests.Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with strong,flexible bodies, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws, and teethadapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular andpredatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or toohigh in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice andother small game. They can see in near darkness. Like most mammals,cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell thanhumans.Despite being solitary hunters, cats are a social species, and catcommunication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations(meowing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) aswell as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific bodylanguage.[7]Cats have a rapid breeding rate. Under controlled breeding, theycan be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known ascat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spayingand neutering, and the abandonment of former household pets, hasresulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, with apopulation of up to 60 million of these animals in the UnitedStates alone, requiring population control.[8]Since cats were cult animals in ancient Egypt, they were commonlybelieved to have been domesticated there,[9] but there may havebeen instances of domestication as early as theNeolithic.[10]A genetic study in 2007 revealed that domestic cats have descendedfrom African wildcats (Felis silvestris lybica) c. 8000 BCE, in theMiddle East.[9][11] According to Scientific American cats are themost popular pet in the world, and are now found almost every placewhere people live.[12]
Puppy Puzzle 1.23
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A puppy is a juvenile dog. Some puppies mayweigh 1–3 lb (0.45–1.4 kg), while larger ones can weigh up to 15–23lb (6.8–10 kg). All healthy puppies grow quickly after birth. Apuppy's coat color may change as the puppy grows older, as iscommonly seen in breeds such as the Yorkshire Terrier. Invernacular English, puppy refers specifically to dogs while pup mayoften be used for other mammals such as seals, giraffes, guineapigs, or even rats.Born after an average of 63 days of gestation, puppies emerge in anamnion that is bitten off and eaten by the mother dog.[1] Puppiesbegin to nurse almost immediately. If the litter exceeds sixpuppies, particularly if one or more are obvious runts, humanintervention in hand-feeding the stronger puppies is necessary toensure that the runts get proper nourishment and attention from themother. As they reach one month of age, puppies are graduallyweaned and begin to eat solid food. The mother may regurgitatepartially digested food for the puppies or might let them eat someof her solid food.[2] The mother dog usually refuses to nurse atthis stage, though she might let them occasionally nurse forcomfort.At first, puppies spend the large majority of their time sleepingand the rest feeding. They instinctively pile together into a heap,and become distressed if separated from physical contact with theirlittermates, by even a short distance.[3]Puppies are born with a fully functional sense of smell but can'topen their eyes. During their first two weeks, a puppy's senses alldevelop rapidly. During this stage the nose is the primary senseorgan used by puppies to find their mother's teats, and to locatetheir litter-mates, if they become separated by a short distance.Puppies open their eyes about nine to eleven days following birth.At first, their retinas are poorly developed and their vision ispoor. Puppies are not able to see as well as adult dogs. Inaddition, puppies' ears remain sealed until about thirteen toseventeen days after birth, after which they respond more activelyto sounds. Between two to four weeks old, puppies usually begin togrowl, bite, wag their tails, and bark.[4]Puppies develop very quickly during their first three months,particularly after their eyes and ears open and they are no longercompletely dependent on their mother. Their coordination andstrength improve, they spar with their litter-mates, and begin toexplore the world outside the nest. They play wrestling, chase,dominance, and tug-of-war games.Puppies are highly social animals and spend most of their wakinghours interacting with either their mother or littermates. It isimportant that puppies are socialized with humans, particularlybetween the ages of eight and twelve weeks, so as to encouragehealthy interaction and develop the puppy's social skills aroundpeople. Puppies ideally should be exposed to as wide a variety offriendly people as possible during this period. Dogs that do notreceive adequate socialization during this sensitive period maydisplay fearful behavior around humans or other dogs as adults. Insmall breeds, puppies are considered puppies up until around 1 yearof age as opposed to large breeds that may be regarded as a puppiesup until around 2 years old. [5]Docking and declawing
London Scenery Puzzle 1.23
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London Listeni/ˈlʌndən/ is the capital city ofEngland and the United Kingdom, and the largest city, urban zoneand metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the European Unionby most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been amajor settlement for two millennia, its history going back to itsfounding by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[4] London's ancientcore, the City of London, largely retains its square-mile mediaevalboundaries. Since at least the 19th century, the name London hasalso referred to the metropolis developed around this core.[5] Thebulk of this conurbation forms the London region[6] and the GreaterLondon administrative area,[7][note 2] governed by the electedMayor of London and the London Assembly.[8]London is a leading global city, with strengths in the arts,commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare,media, professional services, research and development, tourism andtransport all contributing to its prominence.[9] It is the world'sleading financial centre alongside New York City[10][11][12] andhas the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the worlddepending on measurement.[note 3][13][14] London has been describedas a world cultural capital.[15][16][17][18] It is the world'smost-visited city as measured by international arrivals[19] and hasthe world's largest city airport system measured by passengertraffic.[20] London's 43 universities form the largestconcentration of higher education in Europe.[21] In 2012, Londonbecame the first city to host the modern Summer Olympic Games threetimes.[22]A multicultural city, London has a diverse range of peoples andcultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken within itsboundaries.[23] The 2011 census revealed that 60% of Londoners werewhite, with 45% of residents being white Britons, making them aminority in the city for the first time.[24][25] In March 2011,London had an official population of 8,174,100, making it the mostpopulous municipality in the European Union,[26][27] and accountingfor 12.5% of the UK population.[28] The Greater London Urban Areais the second-largest in the EU with a population of 8,278,251,while the London metropolitan area is the largest in the EU with anestimated total population of between 12 million[30] and 14million.[31] London had the largest population of any city in theworld from around 1831 to 1925.London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London; KewGardens; the site comprising the Palace of Westminster, WestminsterAbbey, and St Margaret's Church; and the historic settlement ofGreenwich (in which the Royal Observatory marks the Prime Meridian,0° longitude, and GMT).[33] Other famous landmarks includeBuckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul'sCathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. London ishome to numerous museums, galleries, libraries, sporting events andother cultural institutions, including the British Museum, NationalGallery, Tate Modern, British Library and 40 West End theatres.[34]The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network inthe world.
Truck Puzzle 1.23
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A truck (North American and AustralianEnglish) or lorry (British and Commonwealth English) is a motorvehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size,power, and configuration, with the smallest being mechanicallysimilar to an automobile. Commercial trucks can be very large andpowerful, and may be configured to mount specialized equipment,such as in the case of fire trucks and concrete mixers and suctionexcavators. Modern trucks are powered by either gasoline or dieselengines, with diesel dominance in commercial applications. In theEuropean Union vehicles with a gross combination mass of less than3,500 kilograms (7,716 lb) are known as light commercial vehiclesand those over as large goods vehicles.
Baby Dogs Puzzle 1.23
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The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is asubspecies of the gray wolf (Canis lupus), a member of the Canidaefamily of the mammalian order Carnivora. The term "domestic dog" isgenerally used for both domesticated and feral varieties. The dogwas the first domesticated animal and has been the most widely keptworking, hunting, and pet animal in human history.
Beer Puzzle 1.23
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Beer is the world's most widely consumedalcoholic beverage; it is the third-most popular drink overall,after water and tea. It is thought by some to be the oldestfermented beverage. Beer is produced by the saccharification ofstarch and fermentation of the resulting sugar. The starch andsaccharification enzymes are often derived from malted cerealgrains, most commonly malted barley and malted wheat. Unmaltedmaize and rice are widely used adjuncts to lighten the flavourbecause of their lower cost. The preparation of beer is calledbrewing. Most beer is flavoured with hops, which add bitterness andact as a natural preservative, though other flavourings such asherbs or fruit may occasionally be included.Some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the productionand distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included lawsregulating beer and beer parlours, and "The Hymn to Ninkasi", aprayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayerand as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culturewith few literate people. Today, the brewing industry is a globalbusiness, consisting of several dominant multinational companiesand many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs toregional breweries.The strength of beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume(abv) although it may vary between 0.5% (de-alcoholized) and 20%,with some breweries creating examples of 40% abv and above inrecent years.Beer forms part of the culture of beer-drinking nations and isassociated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as wellas a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling andpub games such as bar billiards.
Fluffy Kittens Puzzle 1.23
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A kitten is a juvenile domesticated cat.[1] Afeline litter usually consists of two to five kittens. To survive,kittens need the care of their mother for the first several weeksof their life. Kittens are highly social animals and spend most oftheir waking hours playing and interacting with availablecompanions.
French Food Puzzle 1.23
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French cuisine (French: Cuisine française,IPA: [kɥi.zin fʁɑ̃.sɛz]) refers to cooking traditions and practicesoriginating from France.Guillaume Tirel Taillevent, a court chef, wrote Le Viandier, one ofthe earliest recipe collections of Medieval France. During thattime, French cuisine was heavily influenced by Italian cuisine. Inthe 17th century, chefs François Pierre La Varenne andMarie-Antoine Carême spearheaded movements that shifted Frenchcooking away from its foreign influences and developed France's ownindigenous style. Cheese and wine are a major part of the cuisine,playing different roles regionally and nationally, with manyvariations and appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) (regulatedappellation) laws.French cuisine was codified in the 20th century by Escoffier tobecome the modern haute cuisine; Escoffier, however, left out muchof the regional culinary character to be found in the regions ofFrance. Gastro-tourism and the Guide Michelin helped to acquaintpeople with the rich bourgeois and peasant cuisine of the Frenchcountryside starting in the 20th century. Gascon cuisine has alsohad great influence over the cuisine in the southwest of France.Many dishes that were once regional have proliferated in variationsacross the country.Knowledge of French cooking has contributed significantly toWestern cuisines and its criteria are used widely in Westerncookery school boards and culinary education. In November 2010,French gastronomy was added by UNESCO to its lists of the world's"intangible cultural heritage"[1][2] along with Mexicancuisine.
Children Painting Puzzle 1.23
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Biologically, a child (plural: children) is ahuman between the stages of birth and puberty.[1] The legaldefinition of child generally refers to a minor, otherwise known asa person younger than the age of majority.[1]Child may also describe a relationship with a parent (such as sonsand daughters of any age)[2] or, metaphorically, an authorityfigure, or signify group membership in a clan, tribe, or religion;it can also signify being strongly affected by a specific time,place, or circumstance, as in "a child of nature" or "a child ofthe Sixties".
White Baby Dog Puzzle 1.23
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The domestic dog (Canis lupusfamiliaris)[2][3] is a subspecies of the gray wolf (Canis lupus), amember of the Canidae family of the mammalian order Carnivora. Theterm "domestic dog" is generally used for both domesticated andferal varieties. The dog was the first domesticated animal[4] andhas been the most widely kept working, hunting, and pet animal inhuman history.MtDNA evidence shows an evolutionary split between the modern dog'slineage and the modern wolf's lineage around 100,000 years ago but,as of 2013, the oldest fossil specimens genetically linked to themodern dog's lineage date to approximately 33,000–36,000 yearsago.[4][6] Dogs' value to early human hunter-gatherers led to themquickly becoming ubiquitous across world cultures. Dogs performmany roles for people, such as hunting, herding, pulling loads,protection, assisting police and military, companionship, and, morerecently, aiding handicapped individuals. This impact on humansociety has given them the nickname "man's best friend" in theWestern world. In some cultures, however, dogs are also a source ofmeat.[7][8] In 2001, there were estimated to be 400 million dogs inthe world.[9]Most breeds of dogs are at most a few hundred years old, havingbeen artificially selected for particular morphologies andbehaviors by people for specific functional roles. Through thisselective breeding, the dog has developed into hundreds of variedbreeds, and shows more behavioral and morphological variation thanany other land mammal.[10] For example, height measured to thewithers ranges from 15.2 centimetres (6.0 in) in the Chihuahua toabout 76 cm (30 in) in the Irish Wolfhound; color varies from whitethrough grays (usually called "blue") to black, and browns fromlight (tan) to dark ("red" or "chocolate") in a wide variation ofpatterns; coats can be short or long, coarse-haired to wool-like,straight, curly, or smooth.[11] It is common for most breeds toshed this coat.
Chocolate Puzzle 1.23
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Chocolate Listeni/ˈtʃɒklət/ is a raw orprocessed food produced from the seed of the tropical Theobromacacao tree. Cacao has been cultivated for at least three millenniain Mexico, Central America and Northern South America. Its earliestdocumented use is around 1100 BC. The majority of the Mesoamericanpeople made chocolate beverages, including the Aztecs, who made itinto a beverage known as xocolātl [ʃo'kolaːt͡ɬ], a Nahuatl wordmeaning "bitter water". The seeds of the cacao tree have an intensebitter taste, and must be fermented to develop the flavor.After fermentation, the beans are dried, then cleaned, and thenroasted, and the shell is removed to produce cacao nibs. The nibsare then ground to cocoa mass, pure chocolate in rough form.Because this cocoa mass usually is liquefied then molded with orwithout other ingredients, it is called chocolate liquor. Theliquor also may be processed into two components: cocoa solids andcocoa butter. Unsweetened baking chocolate (bitter chocolate)contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varyingproportions. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form ofsweet chocolate, combining cocoa solids, cocoa butter or other fat,and sugar. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionallycontains milk powder or condensed milk. White chocolate containscocoa butter, sugar, and milk but no cocoa solids.Cocoa solids contain alkaloids such as theobromine andphenethylamine, which have physiological effects on the body. Ithas been linked to serotonin levels in the brain. Some researchfound that chocolate, eaten in moderation, can lower bloodpressure.[1] The presence of theobromine renders chocolate toxic tosome animals,[2] especially dogs and cats.Chocolate has become one of the most popular food types and flavorsin the world. Chocolate chip cookies have become very common, andvery popular, in most parts of Europe and North America. Gifts ofchocolate molded into different shapes have become traditional oncertain holidays. Chocolate is also used in cold and hot beverages,to produce chocolate milk and hot chocolate.Cocoa mass was used originally in Mesoamerica both as a beverageand as an ingredient in foods. Chocolate played a special role inboth Maya and Aztec royal and religious events. Priests presentedcacao seeds as offerings to the deities and served chocolate drinksduring sacred ceremonies. All of the areas that were conquered bythe Aztecs that grew cacao beans were ordered to pay them as a tax,or as the Aztecs called it, a "tribute".[3]The Europeans sweetened and fattened it by adding refined sugar andmilk, two ingredients unknown to the Mexicans. By contrast, theEuropeans never infused it into their general diet, but havecompartmentalized its use to sweets and desserts. In the 19thcentury, Briton John Cadbury developed an emulsification process tomake solid chocolate, creating the modern chocolate bar. Althoughcocoa is originally from the Americas, today Western Africaproduces almost two-thirds of the world's cocoa, with Côte d'Ivoiregrowing almost half of it.
Waterfall Puzzle 1.23
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A waterfall is a place where water flows overa vertical drop in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls alsooccur where meltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg orice shelf.Waterfalls are commonly formed when a river is young.[1] At thesetimes the channel is often narrow and deep. When the river coursesover resistant bedrock, erosion happens slowly, while downstreamthe erosion occurs more rapidly.[1][2] As the watercourse increasesits velocity at the edge of the waterfall, it plucks material fromthe riverbed. Whirlpools created in the turbulence as well as sandand stones carried by the watercourse increase the erosioncapacity.[1] This causes the waterfall to carve deeper into the bedand to recede upstream. Often over time, the waterfall will recedeback to form a canyon or gorge downstream as it recedes upstream,and it will carve deeper into the ridge above it.[3] The rate ofretreat for a waterfall can be as high as one and half meters peryear.[1]Often, the rock stratum just below the more resistant shelf will beof a softer type, meaning that undercutting due to splashback willoccur here to form a shallow cave-like formation known as a rockshelter under and behind the waterfall. Eventually, theoutcropping, more resistant cap rock will collapse under pressureto add blocks of rock to the base of the waterfall. These blocks ofrock are then broken down into smaller boulders by attrition asthey collide with each other, and they also erode the base of thewaterfall by abrasion, creating a deep plunge pool or gorge.Baatara gorge waterfall near Tannourin, LebanonStreams become wider and shallower just above waterfalls due toflowing over the rock shelf, and there is usually a deep area justbelow the waterfall because of the kinetic energy of the waterhitting the bottom. Waterfalls normally form in a rocky area due toerosion. After a long period of being fully formed, the waterfalling off the ledge will retreat, causing a horizontal pitparallel to the waterfall wall. Eventually, as the pit growsdeeper, the waterfall collapses to be replaced by a steeply slopingstretch of river bed.[1] In addition to gradual processes such aserosion, earth movement caused by earthquakes or landslides orvolcanoes can cause a differential in land heights which interferewith the natural course of a water flow, and result inwaterfalls.A river sometimes flows over a large step in the rocks that mayhave been formed by a fault line. Waterfalls can occur along theedge of a glacial trough, where a stream or river flowing into aglacier continues to flow into a valley after the glacier hasreceded or melted. The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley areexamples of this phenomenon, which is referred to as a hangingvalley. Another reason hanging valleys may form is where two riversjoin and one is flowing faster than the other.[1] Waterfalls can begrouped into ten broad classes based on the average volume of waterpresent on the fall (which depends on both the waterfall's averageflow and its height) using a logarithmic scale. Class 10 waterfallsinclude Niagara Falls, Paulo Afonso Falls and Khone Falls.Classes of other well-known waterfalls include Victoria Falls andKaieteur Falls (Class 9); Rhine Falls and Gullfoss (Class 8); AngelFalls and Dettifoss (Class 7); Yosemite Falls, Lower YellowstoneFalls and Umphang Thee Lor Sue Waterfall (Class 6); SutherlandFalls (Class 5).
Guide Dog Puzzle 1.23
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Guide dogs are assistance dogs trained to leadblind and visually impaired people around obstacles.Although the dogs can be trained to navigate various obstacles,they are partially (red––green) color blind and are not capable ofinterpreting street signs. The human half of the guide dog teamdoes the directing, based upon skills acquired through previousmobility training. The handler might be likened to an aircraft'snavigator, who must know how to get from one place to another, andthe dog is the pilot, who gets them there safely.In several countries, guide dogs, along with most service andhearing dogs, are exempt from regulations against the presence ofanimals in places such as restaurants and publictransportation.References to guide dogs date at least as far back as the mid-16thcentury; the second line of the popular verse alphabet "A was anArcher" is most commonly "B was a Blind-man/Led by a dog"[1] In the19th century verse novel Aurora Leigh by Elizabeth BarrettBrowning, the title character remarks "The blind man walks whereverthe dog pulls / And so I answered."[2]The first guide dog training schools were established in Germanyduring World War I, to enhance the mobility of returning veteranswho were blinded in combat, but interest in guide dogs outside ofGermany did not become widespread until Dorothy Harrison Eustis, anAmerican dog breeder living in Switzerland, wrote a first-handaccount about a guide dog training school in Potsdam, Germany, thatwas published in The Saturday Evening Post in 1927. Earlier thatsame year, U.S. Sen. Thomas D. Schall of Minnesota was paired witha guide dog imported from Germany in 1927,[3] but the guide dogmovement did not take hold in America until Nashville residentMorris Frank returned from Switzerland after being trained with oneof Eustis's dogs, a female German shepherd named Buddy. Frank andBuddy embarked on a publicity tour to convince Americans of theabilities of guide dogs, and the need to allow people with guidedogs to access public transportation, hotels, and other areas opento the public. In 1929, Eustis and Frank co-founded The Seeing Eyein Nashville, Tennessee (relocated in 1931 to New Jersey).The first guide dogs in Great Britain were German shepherds. Threeof these first were Judy, Meta, and Folly, who were handed over totheir new owners, veterans blinded in World War I, on 6 October1931. Judy's new owner was Musgrave Frankland.[4][5] In 1934 TheGuide Dogs for the Blind Association in Great Britain beganoperation, although their first permanent trainer was a Russianmilitary officer, Captain Nikolai Liakhoff, who moved to the UK in1933.[5]
Shiba Inu Puzzle 1.23
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The Shiba Inu (柴犬?) is the smallest of the sixoriginal and distinct spitz breeds of dog from Japan.A small, agile dog that copes very well with mountainous terrain,the Shiba Inu was originally bred for hunting. It is similar inappearance to the Akita, though much smaller in stature. It is oneof the few ancient dog breeds still in existence in the worldtoday.Inu is the Japanese word for dog, but the origin of the prefix"Shiba" is less clear. The word shiba means "brushwood" inJapanese, and refers to a type of tree or shrub whose leaves turnred in the fall.[4] This leads some to believe that the Shiba wasnamed with this in mind, either because the dogs were used to huntin wild shrubs, or because the most common color of the Shiba Inuis a red color similar to that of the shrubs. However, in an oldNagano dialect, the word shiba also had the meaning of "small",thus this might be a reference to the dog's diminutive stature.[4]Therefore, the Shiba Inu is sometimes translated as "LittleBrushwood Dog".[1]
Cake Puzzle 1.23
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Cake is a form of bread or bread-like food. Inits modern forms, it is typically a sweet baked dessert. In itsoldest forms, cakes were normally fried breads or cheesecakes, andnormally had a disk shape. Determining whether a given food shouldbe classified as bread, cake, or pastry can be difficult.Modern cake, especially layer cakes, normally contain a combinationof flour, sugar, eggs, and butter or oil, with some varieties alsorequiring liquid (typically milk or water) and leavening agents(such as yeast or baking powder). Flavorful ingredients like fruitpurées, nuts, dried or candied fruit, or extracts are often added,and numerous substitutions for the primary ingredients arepossible. Cakes are often filled with fruit preserves or dessertsauces (like pastry cream), iced with buttercream or other icings,and decorated with marzipan, piped borders or candiedfruit.[1]Cake is often the dessert of choice for meals at ceremonialoccasions, particularly weddings, anniversaries, and birthdays.There are countless cake recipes; some are bread-like, some richand elaborate, and many are centuries old. Cake making is no longera complicated procedure; while at one time considerable labor wentinto cake making (particularly the whisking of egg foams), bakingequipment and directions have been simplified so that even the mostamateur cook may bake a cake.
Baby Cat Puzzle 1.23
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The domestic cat[1][2] (Felis catus[2] orFelis silvestris catus[4]) is a small, usually furry, domesticated,and carnivorous mammal. It is often called the housecat when keptas an indoor pet,[6] or simply the cat when there is no need todistinguish it from other felids and felines. Cats are often valuedby humans for companionship and their ability to hunt vermin andhousehold pests.Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with strong,flexible bodies, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws, and teethadapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular andpredatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or toohigh in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice andother small game. They can see in near darkness. Like most othermammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smellthan humans.Despite being solitary hunters, cats are a social species, and catcommunication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations(meowing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) aswell as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific bodylanguage.[7]Cats have a rapid breeding rate. Under controlled breeding, theycan be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known ascat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spayingand neutering, and the abandonment of former household pets, hasresulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiringpopulation control.[8]Since cats were cult animals in ancient Egypt, they were commonlybelieved to have been domesticated there,[9] but there may havebeen instances of domestication as early as theNeolithic.[10]A genetic study in 2007 revealed that domestic cats are descendedfrom African wildcats (Felis silvestris lybica) c. 8000 BCE, in theMiddle East.[9][11] According to Scientific American, cats are themost popular pet in the world, and are now found almost every placewhere people live.
Lovely Baby Puzzle 1.23
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An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning"unable to speak" or "speechless") is the very young offspring of ahuman or other mammal. When applied to humans, the term is usuallyconsidered synonymous with baby, but the latter is commonly appliedto the young of any animal. When a human child learns to walk, theterm toddler may be used instead.The term infant is typically applied to young children between theages of 1 month and 12 months; however, definitions may varybetween birth and 3 years of age. A newborn is an infant who isonly hours, days, or up to a few weeks old. In medical contexts,newborn or neonate (from Latin, neonatus, newborn) refers to aninfant in the first 28 days after birth;[1] the term applies topremature infants, postmature infants, and full term infants.Before birth, the term fetus is used.
Shinkansen Train Puzzle 1.23
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The Shinkansen (新幹線?, new trunk line), alsoknown as the "Bullet Train", is a network of high-speed railwaylines in Japan operated by four Japan Railways Group companies.Starting with the Tōkaidō Shinkansen in 1964, the network hasexpanded to currently consist of 2,387.7 km (1,483.6 mi) of lineswith maximum speeds of 240–300 km/h (149–186 mph), 283.5 km (176.2mi) of Mini-shinkansen lines with a maximum speed of 130 km/h (81mph), and 10.3 km (6.4 mi) of spur lines with Shinkansen services.The network presently links most major cities on the islands ofHonshu and Kyushu, with construction of a link to the northernisland of Hokkaido underway and plans to increase speeds on theTōhoku Shinkansen up to 320 km/h (199 mph). Test runs have reached443 km/h (275 mph) for conventional rail in 1996, and up to a worldrecord 581 km/h (361 mph) for maglev trainsets in 2003.Shinkansen literally means new trunk line, referring to the tracks,but the name is widely used inside and outside Japan to refer tothe trains as well as the system as a whole. The name Superexpress(超特急 chō-tokkyū?), initially used for Hikari trains, was retired in1972 but is still used in English-language announcements andsignage.The Tōkaidō Shinkansen is the world's busiest high-speed rail line.Carrying 151 million passengers per year (March 2008), it hastransported more passengers (over 4 billion, network over 6billion) than any other high speed line in the world. Between Tokyoand Osaka, the two largest metropolises in Japan, up to thirteentrains per hour with sixteen cars each (1,323 seats capacity) runin each direction with a minimum headway of three minutes betweentrains. Though largely a long-distance transport system, theShinkansen also serves commuters who travel to work in metropolitanareas from outlying cities.
Nutritious Breakfast Puzzle 1.23
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Breakfast is the first meal taken after risingfrom a night's sleep, most often eaten in the early morning beforeundertaking the day's work.[1] Among English speakers, "breakfast"can be used to refer to this meal or to refer to a meal composed oftraditional breakfast foods (such as eggs, oatmeal and sausage)served at any time of day. The word literally refers to breakingthe fasting period of the prior night.[2]Breakfast foods vary widely from place to place, but often includea carbohydrate such as grains or cereals, fruit and/or vegetables,a protein food such as eggs, meat or fish, and a beverage such astea, coffee or fruit juice. Coffee, tea, juice, breakfast cereals,pancakes, sausages, bacon, sweet breads, fresh fruit, vegetables,eggs, mushrooms, baked beans, muffins, crumpets and toast withbutter or margarine and/or jam or marmalade are common examples ofbreakfast foods, though a large range of preparations andingredients are associated with breakfast globally.[3]Nutritional experts have referred to breakfast as the mostimportant meal of the day, citing studies that find that people whoskip breakfast are disproportionately likely to have problems withconcentration, metabolism, and weight.[4][5] The nutritionistMonica Reinagel has argued the metabolic benefits have beenexaggerated, noting the improvement in cognition has been foundamong children, but is much less significant among adults. Reinagelalso explains that the link between skipping breakfast andincreased weight is likely behavioral—compensating with snacksand/or eating more later—and therefore not inevitable.[6]
Maltese Puzzle 1.23
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The Maltese is a small breed of dog in the ToyGroup. It descends from dogs originating in the CentralMediterranean Area. The breed name and origins are generallyunderstood to derive from the Mediterranean island nation of Malta;however, the name is sometimes described with reference to thedistinct Adriatic island of Mljet, or a defunct Maltese town calledMelita.This ancient breed has been known by a variety of names throughoutthe centuries. Originally called the "Canis Melitaeus" in Latin, ithas also been known in English as the "ancient dog of Malta ," the"Roman Ladies' Dog," the "Maltese Lion Dog." The origin of thecommon name "Cokie" is unknown, but is believed to have originatedin the mid-1960s on the U.S. East Coast and spread in popular use.This breed has been referred falsely as the "Bichon", as that namerefers to the family ("small long-haired dog") and not the breed.The Kennel Club officially settled on the name "Maltese" for thebreed in the 19th century.[3]The Maltese is thought to have been descended from a Spitz-type dogfound among the Swiss Lake Dwellers and was selectively bred toattain its small size. There is also some evidence that the breedoriginated in Asia and is related to the Tibetan Terrier; however,the exact origin is unknown.[7][8] The dogs probably made their wayto Europe through the Middle East with the migration of nomadictribes. Some writers believe these proto-Maltese were used forrodent control[5][9] before the appearance of the breed gainedparamount importance.The oldest record of this breed was found on a Greek amphora[10]found in the Etruscan town of Vulci, in which a Maltese-like dog isportrayed along with the word Μελιταιε (Melitaie). Archaeologistsdate this ancient Athenian product to the decades around 500BC.[11] References to the dog can also be found in Ancient Greekand Roman literature.[12]Aristotle was the first to mention its name Melitaei Catelli, whenhe compares the dog to a mustelid, around 370 BC.[13][14] The firstwritten document (supported by Stephanus ofByzantium[4][15][16][17]) describing the small Canis Melitaeus wasgiven by the Greek writer Callimachus, around 350 BC.[18] Plinysuggests the dog as having taken its name from the Adriatic islandMéléda;[15] however, Strabo, in the early first century AD,identifies the breed as originating from the Mediterranean islandof Malta,[6][19] and writes that they were favored by noblewomen.[3][16][18][20]During the first century, the Roman poet Martial wrote descriptiveverses to a small white dog named Issa owned by his friendPublius.[21] It is commonly thought that Issa was a Maltese dog,and various sources link Martial's friend Publius with the RomanGovernor Publius of Malta,[22] though others do not identifyhim.[23]John Caius, physician to Queen Elizabeth I, also claimed thatCallimachus was referring to the island of Melita "in the Sicilianstrait" (Malta).[16] This claim is often repeated, especially byEnglish writers.[5][24] The dog's links to Malta are mentioned inthe writings of Abbé Jean Quintin d'Autun, Secretary to the GrandMaster of the Knights of Malta Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, inhis work Insulae Melitae Descriptio.[25]Around the 17th and 18th centuries, some breeders decided to"improve" the breed, by making it smaller still. Linnaeus wrote in1792 that these dogs were about the size of a squirrel.[5][18] Thebreed nearly disappeared and was crossbred with other small dogssuch as Poodles and miniature Spaniels. In the early 19th century,there were as many as nine different breeds of Maltesedog.[5]Parti-colour and solid colour dogs were accepted in the show ringfrom 1902 until 1913 in England,[26] and as late as 1950 inVictoria, Australia.[27] However, white Maltese were required to bepure white. Coloured Maltese could be obtained from the south ofFrance.
Japanese Sushi Puzzle 1.23
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Sushi (すし, 寿司, 鮨, 鮓, 寿斗, 寿し, 壽司?) is aJapanese food consisting of cooked vinegared rice (shari [しゃり])combined with other ingredients (neta [寿司ネタ]), usually raw fish orother seafood. Neta and forms of sushi presentation vary widely,but the ingredient which all sushi have in common is shari. Shariis also referred to as sushi-meshi (寿司飯, "sushi rice").Raw meat (usually but not necessarily seafood) sliced and served byitself is sashimi.
Outdoor Sports Puzzle 1.23
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Outdoor recreation or outdoor activity isleisure pursuits engaged in the outdoors, often in natural orsemi-natural settings out of town. Examples include adventureracing, backpacking, bicycling, camping, canoeing, canyoning,caving, fishing, hiking, horseback riding, hunting, kayaking,mountaineering, photography, adventure park, rock climbing,running, sailing, skiing, and surfing. Outdoor recreation may alsorefer to a team sport game or practice held in an outdoorsetting.The two primary purposes for outdoor recreation are beneficial useand pleasurable appreciation.[1][2]Beneficial use is related to the physical and social rewards thatgoal-directed activity instills in individuals or groups. Someoutdoor goal-directed activities are: backpacking, canoeing,canyoning, caving, climbing, hiking, hill walking, hunting,kayaking, and rafting. Arguably broader groupings of goal-directedoutdoor activities would include water sports, snow sports, andhorseback riding. Goal-directed outdoor activities arepredominately physical, though they may also be mentally,emotionally, and spiritually rewarding. The outdoors as a physicalor social setting may meet the needs of physical health,self-sufficiency, risk-taking, the building of social ties(including teambuilding), and the needs of achievement (such aspracticing, enhancing and challenging skills, testing stamina andendurance, and seeking adventure or excitement). The outdoors canbe an environment in which people "show what they can do".[2]Pleasurable appreciation encourages experiences of being "let in onnatures show".[2] Enhancement of inner perceptual and/or spirituallife may be experienced through outdoor activities andoutdoor-related activities such as nature study, aestheticcontemplation, meditation, painting, photography, archeological orhistorical research, and indigenous culture among others. Theseactivities may also be physically rewarding.Many people in modern civilizations believe that the value ofnature is found only in its "utilitarian value" (beneficial use).They would discount the inner perceptual and/or spiritual benefitsof the "intrinsic value of nature" that may be experienced duringpleasurable appreciation.Outdoor activities may also be pursued for the purposes of findingpeace in nature, enjoying life, and relaxing. They are alternativesto expensive forms of tourism. Outdoor activities are alsofrequently used as a medium in education and teambuilding.
Athletics Puzzle 1.23
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Track and field is a sport comprising variouscompetitive athletic contests based on running, jumping, andthrowing. The name of the sport derives from the competition venue:a stadium with an oval running track around a grass field. Thethrowing and jumping events generally take place in the centralenclosed area.Track and field falls under the umbrella sport of athletics, whichalso includes road running, cross country running, and racewalking. The two most prestigious international track and fieldcompetitions are held under the banner of athletics: the athleticscompetition at the Olympic Games and the IAAF World Championshipsin Athletics. The International Association of AthleticsFederations is the international governing body for track andfield.Track and field events are generally individual sports withathletes challenging each other to decide a single victor. Theracing events are won by the athlete with the fastest time, whilethe jumping and throwing events are won by the athlete who hasachieved the greatest distance or height in the contest. Therunning events are categorised as sprints, middle and long-distanceevents, relays, and hurdling. Regular jumping events include longjump, triple jump, high jump and pole vault, while the most commonthrowing events are shot put, javelin, discus and hammer. There arealso "combined events", such as heptathlon and decathlon, in whichathletes compete in a number of the above events.Records are kept of the best performances in specific events, atworld and national levels, right down to a personal level. However,if athletes are deemed to have violated the event's rules orregulations, they are disqualified from the competition and theirmarks are erased.In North America, the term track and field may be used to refer toathletics in general, rather than specifically track and fieldevents.
Military Aircraft Puzzle 1.23
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A military aircraft is any fixed-wing orrotary-wing aircraft that is operated by a legal or insurrectionaryarmed service of any type[1] Military aircraft can be either combator non-combat:Combat aircraft are aircraft designed to destroy enemy equipmentusing their own armament.[1] Combat aircraft are normally developedand procured only by military forces.Non-combat aircraft are aircraft not designed for combat as theirprimary function, but may carry weapons for self-defense. Thesemainly operate in support roles, and may be developed by eithermilitary forces or civilian organizations.
Four Wheel Motor Puzzle 1.23
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The wheel hub motor (also called wheel motor,wheel hub drive, hub motor or in-wheel motor) is an electric motorthat is incorporated into the hub of a wheel and drives itdirectly.
Fighter Puzzle 1.23
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A fighter aircraft is a military aircraftdesigned primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft,[1]as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is toattack ground targets. The hallmarks of a fighter are its speed,maneuverability, and small size relative to other combataircraft.Many fighters have secondary ground-attack capabilities, and someare designed as dual-purpose fighter-bombers; often aircraft thatdo not fulfill the standard definition are called fighters. Thismay be for political or national security reasons, for advertisingpurposes, or other reasons.[2]A fighter's main purpose is to establish air superiority over abattlefield. Since World War I, achieving and maintaining airsuperiority has been considered essential for victory inconventional warfare.[3] The success or failure of a belligerent'sefforts to gain air supremacy hinges on several factors includingthe skill of its pilots, the tactical soundness of its doctrine fordeploying its fighters, and the numbers and performance of thosefighters. Because of the importance of air superiority, since thedawn of aerial combat armed forces have constantly competed todevelop technologically superior fighters and to deploy thesefighters in greater numbers, and fielding a viable fighter fleetconsumes a substantial proportion of the defense budgets of modernarmed forces.
Theater Soldiers Puzzle 1.23
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A soldier is one who fights as part of anorganized land-based armed force;[1] if that force is for hire theperson is generally termed a mercenary soldier, or mercenary.[2]The majority of cognates of the word "soldier" that exist in otherlanguages have a meaning that embraces both commissioned andnon-commissioned officers in national land forces.The word soldier entered modern English in the 14th century fromthe equivalent Middle English word soudeour, from Anglo-Frenchsoudeer or soudeour, meaning mercenary, from soudee, meaningshilling's worth or wage, from sou or soud, shilling.[3] The wordis also related to the Medieval Latin soldarius, meaning soldier(literally, "one having pay").[4] These words ultimately derive theLate Latin word solidus, referring to an Ancient Roman coin used inthe Byzantine Empire.
Painting Puzzle 1.23
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Painting is the practice of applying paint,pigment, color or other medium[1] to a surface (support base). Themedium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but otherimplements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes, can be used.In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result ofthe action. However, painting is also used outside of art as acommon trade among craftsmen and builders. Paintings may have fortheir support such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass,lacquer, clay, leaf, copper or concrete, and may incorporatemultiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, gold leaf aswell as objects.Painting is a mode of creative expression, and the forms arenumerous. Drawing, composition or abstraction and other aestheticsmay serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention ofthe practitioner. Paintings can be naturalistic andrepresentational (as in a still life or landscape painting),photographic, abstract, be loaded with narrative content,symbolism, emotion or be political in nature.A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Westernart is dominated by spiritual motifs and ideas; examples of thiskind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figureson pottery to Biblical scenes rendered on the interior walls andceiling of The Sistine Chapel, to scenes from the life of Buddha orother images of eastern religious origin.
Saarbrucken Travel Puzzle 1.23
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Saarbrücken (German pronunciation:[zaːɐ̯ˈbʁʏkən]; French: Sarrebruck; Luxembourgish: Saarbrécken) isthe capital of the state of Saarland in Germany. Saarbrücken isSaarland's administrative, commercial and cultural centre. The cityis situated next to the French border at the heart of ametropolitan area where most of the people of Saarland live.Saarbrücken was created in 1909 by the merger of three towns,Saarbrücken, St. Johann and Malstatt-Burbach and used to be theindustrial and transport centre of the Saar coal basin. Productsincluded iron and steel, sugar, beer, pottery, optical instruments,machinery, and construction materials.Historic landmarks in the city include the stone bridge across theSaar (1546), the Gothic church of St Arnual, the 18th-centurySaarbrücken Castle and the old part of the town, the St. JohannerMarkt (Sankt Johann market).Two times in the 20th century Saarbrücken was separated fromGermany, in 1920–35 as capital of the Saar (League of Nations) andin 1947–56 as capital of the Saar (protectorate).
Wedding Cake Puzzle 1.23
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A wedding cake is the traditional cake servedat wedding receptions following dinner. In some parts of England,the wedding cake is served at a wedding breakfast, on the morningfollowing the ceremony. In modern Western culture, the cake isusually on display and served to guests at the reception.Traditionally, wedding cakes were made to bring good luck to allguests and the couple. Modernly however, they are more of acenterpiece to the wedding and are not always even served to theguests. Some cakes are built with only a single edible tier for thebride and groom to share.Wedding cakes can certainly range in size, from a small cake thatfeeds ten people, to a very large cake that will feed hundreds, alldepending on the wedding. Modern pastry chefs and cake designersuse various ingredients and tools to create a cake that willreflect the personalities of the couple. Marzipan, fondant, gumpaste, buttercream, and chocolate are among some of the morepopular ingredients used. Along with ranging in size andcomponents, cakes range in price. Cakes are usually priced on aper-person, or per-slice, basis.[1] Prices usually range from a fewdollars to a few hundred dollars per-person or slice, depending onthe pastry chef hired to make the cake. Wedding cakes and cakedecorating in general have become a certain pop culture symbol inwestern society; many TV shows like Cake Boss or Amazing WeddingCakes have become very common and are trending in today’s popularculture.
Cigars Puzzle 1.1
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A cigar is a tightly-rolled bundle of driedandfermented tobacco that is ignited so that its smoke may bedrawninto the mouth. Cigar tobacco is grown in significantquantities inBrazil, Cameroon, Cuba, the Dominican Republic,Honduras, Indonesia,Mexico, Nicaragua, the Philippines, CanaryIslands (Spain), and theEastern United States.The word "cigar" originated from sikar, the Yucatec Mayanwordfor smoking, which became cigarro in Spanish, probably fromtheMayan sikar ("to smoke rolled tobacco leaves" – fromsik,"tobacco;") or from the Spanish word cigarra("grasshopper").However, the word itself, and variations on it, didnot come intogeneral use until 1730. New names for cigars include"Jules","Havana", "Vitole" and "Puro".[1] An older alternatespelling is"segar",[2] not uncommon in 19th century signsandadvertisements.
Lovely Cats Puzzle 1.23
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The English word cat (Old English catt) is inorigin a loanword, introduced to many languages of Europe fromLatin cattus[14] and Byzantine Greek κάττα, including Portugueseand Spanish gato, French chat, German Katze, Lithuanian katė andOld Church Slavonic kotka, among others.[15] The ultimate source ofthe word is Afroasiatic, presumably from Late Egyptian čaute,[16]the feminine of čaus "wildcat". The word was introduced, togetherwith the domestic animal itself, to the Roman Republic by the 1stcentury BCE.[citation needed] An alternative word with cognates inmany languages is English puss (pussycat). Attested only from the16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or fromLow German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegianpus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irishpuisín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may havesimply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat.[17][18]A group of cats is referred to as a "clowder" or a "glaring",[19] amale cat is called a "tom" or "tomcat"[20] (or a "gib",[21] ifneutered), a female is called a "molly"[citation needed] or(especially among breeders) a "queen",[22] and a pre-pubescentjuvenile is referred to as a "kitten". The male progenitor of acat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its "sire",[23] and its femaleprogenitor is its "dam".[24] In Early Modern English, the wordkitten was interchangeable with the now-obsolete wordcatling.[25]A pedigreed cat is one whose ancestry is recorded by a cat fancierorganization. A purebred cat is one whose ancestry contains onlyindividuals of the same breed. Many pedigreed and especiallypurebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixedancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domesticlong-haired cats, by coat type, or commonly as random-bred, moggies(chiefly British), or (using terms borrowed from dog breeding)mongrels or mutt-cats.While the African wildcat is the ancestral subspecies from whichdomestic cats are descended, and wildcats and domestic cats cancompletely interbreed, there are several intermediate stagesbetween domestic pet and pedigree cats on the one hand and thoseentirely wild animals on the other. The semi-feral cat is a mostlyoutdoor cat that is not owned by any one individual, but isgenerally friendly to people and may be fed by several households.Feral cats are associated with human habitation areas and may befed by people or forage in rubbish, but are wary of humaninteraction.
Jeep Puzzle 1.23
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Jeep is a brand of American automobiles thatis a marque of Chrysler Group LLC, a multinational manufacturer ina global strategic alliance with Fiat.[2] The former ChryslerCorporation acquired the Jeep brand, along with the remainingassets of its owner American Motors, in 1987. Jeep's line ofvehicles consists solely of sport utility vehicles and off-roadvehicles but has also included pickup trucks in the past.The first Willys MB Jeeps were produced in 1941[1] with the firstcivilian models in 1945,[3] making it the oldest off-road vehicleand sport utility vehicle (SUV) brand. It inspired a number ofother light utility vehicles, such as the Land Rover[4][5] which isthe second oldest 4-wheel-drive brand. The original Jeep vehiclethat first appeared as the prototype Bantam BRC became the primarylight 4-wheel-drive vehicle of the United States Army and Alliesduring World War II, as well as the postwar period. Many Jeepvariants serving similar military and civilian roles have sincebeen created in other nations.
Africa Puzzle 1.23
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Africa is the world's second-largest andsecond-most-populous continent. At about 30.2 million km² (11.7million sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers six percent ofthe Earth's total surface area and 20.4 percent of the total landarea.[2] With 1.0 billion people (as of 2009, see table), itaccounts for about 15% of the world's human population. Thecontinent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, boththe Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to thenortheast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the AtlanticOcean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and variousarchipelagoes. It has 54 fully recognized sovereign states("countries"), 9 territories and three de facto states with limitedrecognition.[3]Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted asthe origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), asevidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and theirancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to aroundseven million years ago – including Sahelanthropus tchadensis,Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilisand H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human)found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago.[4] Africastraddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it isthe only continent to stretch from the northern temperate tosouthern temperate zones.[5]
Kimono Puzzle 1.23
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The kimono (着物?)[1] is a Japanese traditionalgarment worn by men, women and children. The word "kimono", whichliterally means a "thing to wear" (ki "wear" and mono "thing"),[2]has come to denote these full-length robes. The standard plural ofthe word kimono in English is kimonos,[3] but the unmarked Japaneseplural kimono is also sometimes used.Kimono are T-shaped, straight-lined robes worn so that the hemfalls to the ankle, with attached collars and long, wide sleeves.Kimono are wrapped around the body, always with the left side overthe right (except when dressing the dead for burial.),[4] andsecured by a sash called an obi, which is tied at the back. Kimonoare generally worn with traditional footwear (especially zōri orgeta) and split-toe socks (tabi).[5]Today, kimono are most often worn by women, and on specialoccasions. Traditionally, unmarried women wore a style of kimonocalled furisode,[5] with almost floor-length sleeves, on specialoccasions. A few older women and even fewer men still wear thekimono on a daily basis. Men wear the kimono most often atweddings, tea ceremonies, and other very special or very formaloccasions. Professional sumo wrestlers are often seen in the kimonobecause they are required to wear traditional Japanese dresswhenever appearing in public.[6]As the kimono has another name, gofuku (呉服?, literally "clothes ofWu (吳)"), the earliest kimonos were heavily influenced bytraditional Han Chinese clothing, known today as hanfu (漢服?,kanfuku in Japanese), through Japanese embassies to China whichresulted in extensive Chinese culture adoptions by Japan, as earlyas the 5th century AD.[5] It was during the 8th century, however,that Chinese fashions came into style among the Japanese, and theoverlapping collar became particularly women's fashion.[5] DuringJapan's Heian period (794–1192 AD), the kimono became increasinglystylized, though one still wore a half-apron, called a mo, overit.[5] During the Muromachi age (1392–1573 AD), the Kosode, asingle kimono formerly considered underwear, began to be wornwithout the hakama (trousers, divided skirt) over it, and thusbegan to be held closed by an obi "belt".[5] During the Edo period(1603–1867 AD), the sleeves began to grow in length, especiallyamong unmarried women, and the Obi became wider, with variousstyles of tying coming into fashion.[5] Since then, the basic shapeof both the men’s and women’s kimono has remained essentiallyunchanged. Kimonos made with exceptional skill from fine materialshave been regarded as great works of art.[5]The formal kimono was replaced by the more convenient Westernclothes and yukata as everyday wear. After an edict by EmperorMeiji,[7] police, railroad men and teachers moved to Westernclothes. The Western clothes became the army and school uniform forboys. After the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, kimono wearers oftenbecame victims of robbery because they could not run very fast dueto the restricting nature of the kimono on the body and geta clogs.The Tokyo Women's & Children's Wear Manufacturers' Association(東京婦人子供服組合) promoted Western clothes. Between 1920 and 1930 thesailor outfit replaced the undivided hakama in school uniforms forgirls. The 1932 fire at Shirokiya's Nihonbashi store is said tohave been the catalyst for the decline in kimonos as everyday wear.Kimono-clad Japanese women did not wear panties and several womenrefused to jump into safety nets because they were ashamed of beingseen from below. (It is, however, suggested, that this is an urbanmyth.)[8][9] The national uniform, Kokumin-fuku (国民服), a type ofWestern clothes, was mandated for males in 1940.[10][11][12] Todaymost people wear Western clothes and wear the breezier and morecomfortable yukata for special occasions.
Squirrel Puzzle 1.23
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Squirrels belong to a large family of small ormedium-sized rodents called the Sciuridae. The family includes treesquirrels, ground squirrels, chipmunks, marmots (includingwoodchucks), flying squirrels, and prairie dogs. Squirrels areindigenous to the Americas, Eurasia, and Africa, and have beenintroduced to Australia. The earliest known squirrels date from theEocene and are most closely related to the mountain beaver and tothe dormouse among living rodent families.
Kyoto Puzzle 1.23
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Kyoto (京都市 Kyōto-shi?) (Japanesepronunciation: [kʲoːto] ( listen)) is a city in the central part ofthe island of Honshu, Japan. It has a population close to 1.5million. Formerly the imperial capital of Japan, it is now thecapital of Kyoto Prefecture, as well as a major part of theKyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. Kyoto is considered a beautifulcity[citation needed], from lakeside Biwako in the north-east, tothe confluence at National Rt. 81. With temples, parks, bustlingbusiness districts, markets, from regal estates to thetightly-packed neighborhoods, Kyoto is one of the oldest and mostfamous Asian metropolises[citation needed].
Dog Twins Puzzle 1.23
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The domestic dog (Canis lupusfamiliaris)[2][3] is a subspecies of the gray wolf (Canis lupus), amember of the Canidae family of the mammalian order Carnivora. Theterm "domestic dog" is generally used for both domesticated andferal varieties. The dog was the first domesticated animal[4] andhas been the most widely kept working, hunting, and pet animal inhuman history. The word "dog" can also refer to the male of acanine species,[5] as opposed to the word "bitch" which refers tothe female of the species.MtDNA evidence shows an evolutionary split between the modern dog'slineage and the modern wolf's lineage around 100,000 years ago but,as of 2013, the oldest fossil specimens genetically linked to themodern dog's lineage date to approximately 33,000–36,000 yearsago.[4][6] Dogs' value to early human hunter-gatherers led to themquickly becoming ubiquitous across world cultures. Dogs performmany roles for people, such as hunting, herding, pulling loads,protection, assisting police and military, companionship, and, morerecently, aiding handicapped individuals. This impact on humansociety has given them the nickname "man's best friend" in theWestern world. In some cultures, however, dogs are also a source ofmeat.[7][8] In 2001, there were estimated to be 400 million dogs inthe world.[9]Most breeds of dogs are at most a few hundred years old, havingbeen artificially selected for particular morphologies andbehaviors by people for specific functional roles. Through thisselective breeding, the dog has developed into hundreds of variedbreeds, and shows more behavioral and morphological variation thanany other land mammal.[10] For example, height measured to thewithers ranges from 15.2 centimetres (6.0 in) in the Chihuahua toabout 76 cm (30 in) in the Irish Wolfhound; color varies from whitethrough grays (usually called "blue") to black, and browns fromlight (tan) to dark ("red" or "chocolate") in a wide variation ofpatterns; coats can be short or long, coarse-haired to wool-like,straight, curly, or smooth.[11] It is common for most breeds toshed this coat.
Seafood Puzzle 1.23
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Seafood is any form of sea life regarded asfood by humans. Seafood prominently includes fish and shellfish.Shellfish include various species of molluscs, crustaceans, andechinoderms. Historically, sea mammals such as whales and dolphinshave been consumed as food, though that happens to a lesser extentthese days. Edible sea plants, such as some seaweeds andmicroalgae, are widely eaten as seafood around the world,especially in Asia (see the category of sea vegetables). In NorthAmerica, although not generally in the United Kingdom, the term"seafood" is extended to fresh water organisms eaten by humans, soall edible aquatic life may be referred to as seafood. For the sakeof completeness, this article includes all edible aquaticlife.The harvesting of wild seafood is known as fishing and thecultivation and farming of seafood is known as aquaculture,mariculture, or in the case of fish, fish farming. Seafood is oftendistinguished from meat, although it is still animal and isexcluded in a strict vegetarian diet. Seafood is an importantsource of protein in many diets around the world, especially incoastal areas.Most of the seafood harvest is consumed by humans, but asignificant proportion is used as fish food to farm other fish orrear farm animal. Some seafoods (kelp) are used as food for otherplants (fertilizer). In these ways, seafoods are indirectly used toproduce further food for human consumption. Products, such as fishoil and spirulina tablets are also extracted from seafoods. Someseafood is feed to aquarium fish, or used to feed domestic pets,such as cats, and a small proportion is used in medicine, or isused industrially for non-food purposes (leather).
Christmas Puzzle 1.23
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Christmas (Old English: Crīstesmæsse, meaning"Christ's Mass") is an annual commemoration of the birth of JesusChrist[6][7] and a widely observed holiday, celebrated generally onDecember 25[3][4][5] by millions of people around the world.[8][2]A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it closes theAdvent season and initiates the twelve days of Christmastide, whichends after the twelfth night.[9] Christmas is a civil holiday inmany of the world's nations,[10][11][12] is celebrated by anincreasing number of non-Christians,[1][13][14] and is an integralpart of the Christmas and holiday season.The precise year of Jesus' birth, which some historians placebetween 7 and 2 BC, is unknown.[15][16] His birth is mentioned intwo of the four canonical gospels. By the early-to-mid 4th century,the Western Christian Church had placed Christmas on December25,[17] a date later adopted in the East.[18][19] The date ofChristmas may have initially been chosen to correspond with the dayexactly nine months after early Christians believed Jesus to havebeen conceived,[20] and became generally associated with thesouthern solstice (i.e., the Roman winter solstice), with a sunconnection being possible because Christians consider Jesus to bethe "Sun of righteousness" prophesied in Malachi4:2.[20][21][22][23][24]The original date of the celebration in Eastern Christianity wasJanuary 6, in connection with Epiphany, and that is still the dateof the celebration for the Armenian Apostolic Church and inArmenia, where it is a public holiday. As of 2013, there is adifference of 13 days between the modern Gregorian calendar and theolder Julian calendar. Those who continue to use the Juliancalendar or its equivalents thus celebrate December 25 and January6, which on the Gregorian calendar translate as January 7 andJanuary 19. For this reason, Ethiopia, Russia, Georgia, Ukraine,Serbia, the Republic of Macedonia, and the Republic of Moldovacelebrate Christmas on what in the Gregorian calendar is January7.Eastern Orthodox Churches in Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Antioch,Alexandria, Albania, Finland and the Orthodox Church in Americacelebrate Christmas on December 25 in the revised Julian calendar,corresponding to December 25 also in the Gregorian calendar.The popular celebratory customs associated in various countrieswith Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian, Christian, and secularthemes and origins.[25] Popular modern customs of the holidayinclude gift giving, Christmas music and caroling, an exchange ofChristmas cards, church celebrations, a special meal, and thedisplay of various Christmas decorations, including Christmastrees, Christmas lights, nativity scenes, garlands, wreaths,mistletoe, and holly. In addition, several closely related andoften interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, FatherChristmas, Saint Nicholas, and Christkind, are associated withbringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and havetheir own body of traditions and lore.[26] Because gift-giving andmany other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightenedeconomic activity among both Christians and non-Christians, theholiday has become a significant event and a key sales period forretailers and businesses. The economic impact of Christmas is afactor that has grown steadily over the past few centuries in manyregions of the world.
Russian Dinner Puzzle 1.23
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Russian cuisine (Russian: Русская кухня, tr.Russkaya kuhnya) is diverse, as Russia is by area the largestcountry in the world.[1] Russian cuisine derives its variedcharacter from the vast and multi-cultural expanse of Russia. Itsfoundations were laid by the peasant food of the rural populationin an often harsh climate, with a combination of plentiful fish,poultry, game, mushrooms, berries, and honey. Crops of rye, wheat,barley, and millet provided the ingredients for a plethora ofbreads, pancakes, cereals, beer, and vodka. Soups and stews full offlavor are centered on seasonal or storable produce, fish, andmeats. This wholly native food remained the staple for the vastmajority of Russians well into the 20th century.Russia's great expansions of culture, influence, and interestduring the 16th–18th centuries brought more refined foods andculinary techniques, as well as one of the most refined foodcountries in the world. It was during this period that smoked meatsand fish, pastry cooking, salads and green vegetables, chocolate,ice cream, wines, and juice were imported from abroad. At least forthe urban aristocracy and provincial gentry, this opened the doorsfor the creative integration of these new foodstuffs withtraditional Russian dishes. The result is extremely varied intechnique, seasoning, and combination.
Russian Cuisine Puzzle 1.23
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Russian cuisine (Russian: Русская кухня, tr.Russkaya kuhnya) is diverse, as Russia is by area the largestcountry in the world.[1] Russian cuisine derives its variedcharacter from the vast and multi-cultural expanse of Russia. Itsfoundations were laid by the peasant food of the rural populationin an often harsh climate, with a combination of plentiful fish,poultry, game, mushrooms, berries, and honey. Crops of rye, wheat,barley, and millet provided the ingredients for a plethora ofbreads, pancakes, cereals, beer, and vodka. Soups and stews full offlavor are centered on seasonal or storable produce, fish, andmeats. This wholly native food remained the staple for the vastmajority of Russians well into the 20th century.Russia's great expansions of culture, influence, and interestduring the 16th–18th centuries brought more refined foods andculinary techniques, as well as one of the most refined foodcountries in the world. It was during this period that smoked meatsand fish, pastry cooking, salads and green vegetables, chocolate,ice cream, wines, and juice were imported from abroad. At least forthe urban aristocracy and provincial gentry, this opened the doorsfor the creative integration of these new foodstuffs withtraditional Russian dishes. The result is extremely varied intechnique, seasoning, and combination.
Tea Ceremony Puzzle 1.23
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The Japanese tea ceremony, also called the Wayof Tea, is a Japanese cultural activity involving the ceremonialpreparation and presentation of matcha, powdered green tea. InJapanese, it is called chanoyu (茶の湯?) or sadō, chadō (茶道?). Themanner in which it is performed, or the art of its performance, iscalled otemae (お手前; お点前?). Zen Buddhism was a primary influence inthe development of the tea ceremony. Much less commonly, it usesleaf tea, primarily sencha; see sencha tea ceremony, below.Tea gatherings are classified as chakai (茶会?) or chaji (茶事?). Achakai is a relatively simple course of hospitality that includesconfections, thin tea (薄茶 usucha?), and perhaps a light meal. Achaji is a much more formal gathering, usually including afull-course kaiseki meal followed by confections, thick tea (濃茶koicha?), and thin tea. A chaji can last up to four hours.
Dessert Puzzle 1.23
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Dessert is the usually sweet course thatconcludes a meal. The food that composes the dessert courseincludes but is not limited to sweet foods. There is a wide varietyof desserts in western cultures now including cakes, cookies,biscuits, gelatins, pastries, ice creams, pies, pudding, andcandies. Fruit is also commonly found in dessert courses because ofits natural sweetness. Many different cultures have their ownvariations of similar desserts around the world, such as in Russia,where many breakfast foods such as blint, oladi, and syrniki can beserved with honey and jam to make them popular as desserts. Theloosely defined course called dessert can apply to manyfoods.
Mid-Autumn Festival Puzzle 1.23
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The Mid-Autumn Festival (traditional Chinese:中秋節; simplified Chinese: 中秋节; pinyin: zhōngqiū jié; Vietnamese: TếtTrung Thu) is a popular harvest festival celebrated by Chinese andVietnamese people.[1][2] The festival is held on the 15th day ofthe eighth month in the Chinese calendar, during a full moon, whichis in September or early October in the Gregorian calendar, closeto the autumnal equinox.[1]The Government of the People's Republic of China listed thefestival as an "intangible cultural heritage" in 2006, and it wasmade a Chinese public holiday in 2008.[1] It is also a publicholiday in Taiwan. Among the Vietnamese, it is considered thesecond most important holiday tradition.[3] The day followingMid-Autumn Festival is a public holiday in Hong Kong and Macau (thefestival day itself is not a holiday in Hong Kong and Macau, thelogic is that most celebrations are held at night).