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Karl Marx ( 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher,economist, sociologist, journalist and revolutionary socialist.Born in Prussia (now Rhineland-Palatinate), he later becamestateless and spent much of his life in London. Marx's work ineconomics laid the basis for much of the current understanding oflabour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economicthought.He published numerous books during his lifetime, the mostnotable being The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital(1867–1894).Born into a wealthy middle-class family in Trier in thePrussian Rhineland, Marx studied at the universities of Bonn andBerlin where he became interested in the philosophical ideas of theYoung Hegelians. After his studies he wrote for the RheinischeZeitung, a radical newspaper in Cologne, and began to work out thetheory of the materialist conception of history. He moved to Parisin 1843, where he began writing for other radical newspapers andmet Friedrich Engels, who would become his lifelong friend andcollaborator. In 1849 he was exiled and moved to London togetherwith his wife and children, where he continued writing andformulating his theories about social and economic activity. Healso campaigned for socialism and became a significant figure inthe International Workingmen's Association.

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    Biography of Karl Marx
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Biography of Adolf Hitler 1.0 APK
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945)was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of theNazi Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei(NSDAP); National Socialist German Workers Party). He wasChancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("leader") ofNazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. As effective dictator of NaziGermany, Hitler was at the centre of World War II in Europe and theHolocaust.Hitler was a decorated veteran of World War I. He joined theprecursor of the NSDAP, the German Workers' Party, in 1919 andbecame leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923 he attempted a coup inMunich to seize power. The failed coup resulted in Hitler'simprisonment, during which time he wrote his autobiography andpolitical manifesto Mein Kampf ("My Struggle"). After his releasein 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty ofVersailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-Semitism, andanti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. Hitlerfrequently denounced international capitalism and communism asbeing part of a Jewish conspiracy.Hitler's Nazi Party became the largest elected party in theGerman Reichstag, leading to his appointment as chancellor in 1933.Following fresh elections won by his coalition, the Reichstagpassed the Enabling Act, which began the process of transformingthe Weimar Republic into the Third Reich, a single-partydictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology ofNational Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany andestablish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice ofthe post-World War I international order dominated by Britain andFrance. His first six years in power resulted in rapid economicrecovery from the Great Depression, the denunciation ofrestrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, and theannexation of territories that were home to millions of ethnicGermans—actions which gave him significant popular support.Hitler sought Lebensraum ("living space") for the German people.His aggressive foreign policy is considered to be the primary causeof the outbreak of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scalerearmament and on 1 September 1939 invaded Poland, resulting inBritish and French declarations of war on Germany. In June 1941,Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europeand North Africa. Failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry ofthe United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensiveand it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final daysof the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married hislong-time lover, Eva Braun. On 30 April 1945, less than two dayslater, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Red Army,and their corpses were burned.Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, theNazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5million Jews and millions of other victims whom he and hisfollowers deemed Untermenschen ("sub-humans") and sociallyundesirable. Hitler and the Nazi regime were also responsible forthe killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners ofwar. In addition, 29 million soldiers and civilians died as aresult of military action in the European Theatre of World War II.The number of civilians killed during the Second World War wasunprecedented in warfare, and constitutes the deadliest conflict inhuman history.
World War I History 2.7 APK
World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, or theGreat War, was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. More than 70 millionmilitary personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilisedin one of the largest wars in history.[5][6] Over 9 millioncombatants and 7 million civilians died as a result of the war(including the victims of a number of genocides), a casualty rateexacerbated by the belligerents' technological and industrialsophistication, and the tactical stalemate caused by trenchwarfare, a grueling form of warfare in which the defender held theadvantage. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, andpaved the way for major political changes, including revolutions inmany of the nations involved.[7]The war drew in all the world’seconomic great powers,[8] assembled in two opposing alliances: theAllies (based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom/BritishEmpire, France and the Russian Empire) and the Central Powers ofGermany and Austria-Hungary. Although Italy had also been a memberof the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary, itdid not join the Central Powers, as Austria-Hungary had taken theoffensive against the terms of the alliance.[9] These allianceswere reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war:Italy, Japan and the United States joined the Allies, while theOttoman Empire and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers.
World War II History 2.9 APK
World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, wasa global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though relatedconflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of theworld's nations—including all of the great powers—eventuallyforming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involvedmore than 100 million people from over 30 countries. In a state of"total war", the major participants threw their entire economic,industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort,erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources.Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust (inwhich approximately 11 million people were killed)[1][2] and thestrategic bombing of industrial and population centres (in whichapproximately one million were killed, and which included theatomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki),[3] it resulted in anestimated 50 million to 85 million fatalities. These made World WarII the deadliest conflict in human history.[4]The Empire of Japanaimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific and was already at war withthe Republic of China in 1937,[5] but the world war is generallysaid to have begun on 1 September 1939[6] with the invasion ofPoland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany byFrance and the United Kingdom. From late 1939 to early 1941, in aseries of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlledmuch of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italyand Japan. Based on the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939,Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories oftheir European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romania and the Balticstates. The war continued primarily between the European Axispowers and the United Kingdom and the British Commonwealth, withcampaigns including the North Africa and East Africa campaigns, theaerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz bombing campaign, the BalkanCampaign as well as the long-running Battle of the Atlantic. InJune 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of theSoviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history,which trapped the major part of the Axis' military forces into awar of attrition. In December 1941, Japan attacked the UnitedStates and European territories in the Pacific Ocean, and quicklyconquered much of the Western Pacific.
Albert Einstein Biography 2.3 APK
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-borntheoretical physicist. He developed the general theory ofrelativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongsidequantum mechanics).[2][4]:274 Einstein's work is also known for itsinfluence on the philosophy of science.[5][6] Einstein is bestknown in popular culture for his mass–energy equivalence formula E= mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most famousequation").[7] He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for his"services to theoretical physics", in particular his discovery ofthe law of the photoelectric effect, a pivotal step in theevolution of quantum theory.[8] Near the beginning of his career,Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough toreconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of theelectromagnetic field. This led to the development of his specialtheory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle ofrelativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and withhis subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paperon general relativity. He continued to deal with problems ofstatistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to hisexplanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. Healso investigated the thermal properties of light which laid thefoundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein appliedthe general theory of relativity to model the large-scale structureof the universe.[9][10]
Ancient Greece History 2.0 APK
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greekhistory that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6thcenturies BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediatelyfollowing this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Agesand the Byzantine era. Included in ancient Greece is the period ofClassical Greece, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuriesBC. Classical Greece began with the repelling of a Persian invasionby Athenian leadership. Because of conquests by Alexander the Greatof Macedonia, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asiato the western end of the Mediterranean Sea.Classical Greekculture, especially philosophy, had a powerful influence on theRoman Empire, which carried a version of it to many parts of theMediterranean Basin and Europe. For this reason Classical Greece isgenerally considered to be the seminal culture which provided thefoundation of modern Western culture and is considered as thecradle of Western civilization.
Biography of Albert Einstein 1.0 APK
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was aGerman-borntheoretical physicist. He developed the general theoryofrelativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics(alongsidequantum mechanics).:274 Einstein's work is also known foritsinfluence on the philosophy of science. Einstein is best knowninpopular culture for his mass–energy equivalence formula E =mc2(which has been dubbed "the world's most famousequation").Hereceived the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for his"services totheoretical physics", in particular his discovery ofthe law of thephotoelectric effect, a pivotal step in the evolutionof quantumtheory.Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought thatNewtonianmechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws ofclassicalmechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field.This led tothe development of his special theory of relativity. Herealized,however, that the principle of relativity could also beextended togravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory ofgravitationin 1916, he published a paper on general relativity. Hecontinued todeal with problems of statistical mechanics andquantum theory,which led to his explanations of particle theoryand the motion ofmolecules. He also investigated the thermalproperties of lightwhich laid the foundation of the photon theoryof light. In 1917,Einstein applied the general theory ofrelativity to model thelarge-scale structure of the universe.He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came topowerin 1933 and, being Jewish, did not go back to Germany, wherehe hadbeen a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. Hesettled inthe U.S., becoming an American citizen in 1940. On theeve of WorldWar II, he endorsed a letter to President Franklin D.Rooseveltalerting him to the potential development of "extremelypowerfulbombs of a new type" and recommending that the U.S. beginsimilarresearch. This eventually led to what would become theManhattanProject. Einstein supported defending the Allied forces,but largelydenounced the idea of using the newly discoverednuclear fission asa weapon. Later, with the British philosopherBertrand Russell,Einstein signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto,which highlightedthe danger of nuclear weapons. Einstein wasaffiliated with theInstitute for Advanced Study in Princeton, NewJersey, until hisdeath in 1955.Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers alongwithover 150 non-scientific works.On 5 December 2014, universitiesandarchives announced the release of Einstein's papers,comprisingmore than 30,000 unique documents.Einstein'sintellectualachievements and originality have made the word"Einstein"synonymous with "genius".
Alexander The Great Biography 1.0 APK
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC –10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great was aKing (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and amember of the Argead dynasty. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexandersucceeded his father, Philip II, to the throne at the age oftwenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedentedmilitary campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, until by theage of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of theancient world, stretching from Greece to Egypt and into northwestIndia. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one ofhistory's most successful military commanders.During his youth, Alexander was tutored by the philosopherAristotle until the age of 16. After Philip was assassinated in 336BC, Alexander succeeded his father to the throne and inherited astrong kingdom and an experienced army. He had been awarded thegeneralship of Greece and used this authority to launch hisfather's Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest ofPersia.In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire, ruled AsiaMinor, and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years.Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisivebattles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. Hesubsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conqueredthe Achaemenid Empire in its entirety.At that point, his empirestretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River.Seeking to reach the "ends of the world and the Great OuterSea", he invaded India in 326 BC, but was eventually forced to turnback at the demand of his troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323BC, the city he planned to establish as his capital, withoutexecuting a series of planned campaigns that would have begun withan invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a seriesof civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in several statesruled by the Diadochi, Alexander's surviving generals andheirs.Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion his conquestsengendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty citiesthat bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt. Alexander'ssettlement of Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greekculture in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization,aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of theByzantine Empire in the mid-15th century and the presence of Greekspeakers in central and far eastern Anatolia until the 1920s.Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold ofAchilles, and he features prominently in the history and myth ofGreek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against whichmilitary leaders compared themselves, and military academiesthroughout the world still teach his tactics.He is often rankedamong the world's most influential people of all time, along withhis teacher Aristotle.