BookMan Apps

Library Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A library is an organized collection of sources of information andsimilar resources, made accessible to a defined community forreference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access tomaterial, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtualspace, or both.[1] A library's collection can include books,periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints,documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-rayDiscs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats. Librariesrange in size from a few shelves of books to several million items.In Latin and Greek, the idea of bookcase is represented byBibliotheca and Bibliothēkē (Greek: βιβλιοθήκη): derivatives ofthese mean library in many modern languages, e.g. Frenchbibliothèque.The first libraries consisted of archives of theearliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform scriptdiscovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. Private orpersonal libraries made up of written books appeared in classicalGreece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the very closeof the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterraneanworld remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria.A library isorganized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution,a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutionalcollections and services may be intended for use by people whochoose not to—or cannot afford to—purchase an extensive collectionthemselves, who need material no individual can reasonably beexpected to have, or who require professional assistance with theirresearch. In addition to providing materials, libraries alsoprovide the services of librarians who are experts at finding andorganizing information and at interpreting information needs.Libraries often provide quiet areas for studying, and they alsooften offer common areas to facilitate group study andcollaboration. Libraries often provide public facilities for accessto their electronic resources and the Internet. Modern librariesare increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestrictedaccess to information in many formats and from many sources. Theyare extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, byproviding material accessible by electronic means, and by providingthe assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing very largeamounts of information with a variety of digital tools.
Zebra Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Zebras (/ˈzɛbrə/ ZEB-rə or /ˈziːbrə/ ZEE-brə)[1] are severalspecies of African equids (horse family) united by theirdistinctive black and white striped coats. Their stripes come indifferent patterns, unique to each individual. They are generallysocial animals that live in small harems to large herds. Unliketheir closest relatives, horses and donkeys, zebras have never beentruly domesticated.There are three species of zebras: the plainszebra, the Grévy's zebra and the mountain zebra. The plains zebraand the mountain zebra belong to the subgenus Hippotigris, butGrévy's zebra is the sole species of subgenus Dolichohippus. Thelatter resembles an ass, to which it is closely related, while theformer two are more horse-like. All three belong to the genusEquus, along with other living equids.The unique stripes of zebrasmake them one of the animals most familiar to people. They occur ina variety of habitats, such as grasslands, savannas, woodlands,thorny scrublands, mountains, and coastal hills. However, variousanthropogenic factors have had a severe impact on zebrapopulations, in particular hunting for skins and habitatdestruction. Grévy's zebra and the mountain zebra are endangered.While plains zebras are much more plentiful, one subspecies, thequagga, became extinct in the late 19th century – though there iscurrently a plan, called the Quagga Project, that aims to breedzebras that are phenotypically similar to the quagga in a processcalled breeding back.
English SpringerSpaniel Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The English Springer Spaniel is a breed of gun dog in the Spanielfamily traditionally used for flushing and retrieving game. It isan affectionate, excitable breed with an average lifespan of twelveto fourteen years.[1] Descended from the Norfolk or ShropshireSpaniels of the mid-19th century, the breed has diverged intoseparate show and working lines. The breed suffers from averagehealth complaints. The show-bred version of the breed has beenlinked to "rage syndrome", although the disorder is very rare. Itis closely related to the Welsh Springer Spaniel and very closelywith the English Cocker Spaniel; less than a century ago, springersand cockers would come from the same litter. The smaller "cockers"hunted woodcock while the larger littermates were used to flush, or"spring," game. In 1902, the Kennel Club of England recognized theEnglish Springer Spaniel as a distinct breed.[2] They are used assniffer dogs on a widespread basis. The term springer comes fromthe historic hunting role, where the dog would "spring" (flush)birds into the air.
Dachshund Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The dachshund (UK /ˈdæksənd/ or US /ˈdɑːkshʊnt/ DAHKS-huunt or US/ˈdɑːksənt/;[2]) is a short-legged, long-bodied dog breed belongingto the hound family. The standard size dachshund was bred to scent,chase, and flush out badgers and other burrow-dwelling animals,while the miniature dachshund was developed to hunt smaller preysuch as rabbits. In the American West they have also been used tohunt prairie dogs. Today, they are bred for conformation shows andas family pets. Some dachshunds participate in earthdog trials.According to the AKC, the dachshund continues to remain one of thetop 10 dog breeds in the United States of America.
High-speed Rail Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that operatessignificantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using anintegrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicatedtracks. The first such system began operations in Japan in 1964 andwas widely known as the bullet train. High-speed trains normallyoperate on standard gauge tracks of continuously welded rail ongrade-separated right-of-way that incorporates a large turningradius in its design.Many countries have developed high-speed railto connect major cities, including Belgium, Britain, China, France,Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan,Turkey and the United States.While high-speed rail is usuallydesigned for passenger travel, some high-speed systems also offerfreight service. For instance, the French mail service La Posteowns a few special TGV trains for carrying postal freight.
Petrol Engine Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A petrol engine (known as a gasoline engine in North America) is aninternal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run onpetrol (gasoline) and similar volatile fuels. It was invented in1876 in Germany by German inventor Nikolaus August Otto. The firstpetrol combustion engine (one cylinder, 121.6 cm3 displacement) wasprototyped in 1882 in Italy by Enrico Bernardi. In most petrolengines, the fuel and air are usually pre-mixed before compression(although some modern petrol engines now use cylinder-direct petrolinjection). The pre-mixing was formerly done in a carburetor, butnow it is done by electronically controlled fuel injection, exceptin small engines where the cost/complication of electronics doesnot justify the added engine efficiency. The process differs from adiesel engine in the method of mixing the fuel and air, and inusing spark plugs to initiate the combustion process. In a dieselengine, only air is compressed (and therefore heated), and the fuelis injected into very hot air at the end of the compression stroke,and self-ignites.
Hamburger Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A hamburger (also called a beef burger, hamburger sandwich, burgeror hamburg) is a sandwich consisting of one or more cooked pattiesof ground meat, usually beef, placed inside a sliced bun.Hamburgers are often served with lettuce, bacon, tomato, onion,pickles, cheese and condiments such as mustard, mayonnaise,ketchup, relish, and green chile.[1]The term "burger" can also beapplied to the meat patty on its own, especially in the UK wherethe term "patty" is rarely used. The term may be prefixed with thetype of meat used as in "turkey burger".
Dessert Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Dessert (/dɨˈzɜrt/) is a typically sweet course that concludes anevening meal. The course usually consists of sweet foods, but mayinclude other items.In world cultures there are a wide variety ofdesserts including cakes, tarts, cookies, biscuits, gelatins,pastries, ice creams, pies, puddings, custards, sweet soups andcandies. Fruit is also commonly found in dessert courses because ofits naturally occurring sweetness. Many different cultures havetheir own variations of similar desserts around the world, such asin Russia, where many breakfast foods such as blint, oladi, andsyrniki can be served with honey and jam to make them popular asdesserts. The loosely defined course called dessert can apply tomany foods.
Cantonese cuisine Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Cantonese cuisine comes from Guangdong province[1] and is one ofthe Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinese cuisine. Its prominenceoutside China is due to the great numbers of early emigrants fromGuangdong. Cantonese chefs are highly sought after throughoutChina.[2] When Westerners speak of Chinese food, they usually referto Cantonese cuisine.Guangdong has long been a trading port andmany imported foods and ingredients are used in Cantonese cuisine.Besides pork, beef and chicken, Cantonese cuisine incorporatesalmost all edible meats, including offal, chicken feet, duck'stongue, snakes, and snails. However, lamb and goat are rarelyeaten, unlike in the cuisines of northern or western China. Manycooking methods are used, with steaming and stir frying being themost favoured due to their convenience and rapidity. Othertechniques include shallow frying, double steaming, braising, anddeep frying.For many traditional Cantonese cooks, the flavours of afinished dish should be well balanced and not greasy. Apart fromthat, spices should be used in modest amounts to avoid overwhelmingthe flavours of the primary ingredients, and these ingredients inturn should be at the peak of their freshness and quality. There isno widespread use of fresh herbs in Cantonese cooking, in contrastwith their liberal use in other cuisines such as Sichuan, European,Thai or Vietnamese. Garlic chives and coriander leaves are notableexceptions, although the latter are usually used as mere garnish inmost dishes.
Cupcake Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A cupcake (also British English: fairy cake; Australian English:fairy cake, patty cake or cup cake) is a small cake designed toserve one person, which may be baked in a small thin paper oraluminium cup. As with larger cakes, icing and other cakedecorations, such as candy, may be applied.The first mention of thecupcake can be traced as far back as 1796, when a recipe notationof "a cake to be baked in small cups" was written in AmericanCookery by Amelia Simmons. The earliest documentation of the termcupcake was in "Seventy-five Receipts for Pastry, Cakes, andSweetmeats" in 1828 in Eliza Leslie's Receipts cookbook.In theearly 19th century, there were two different uses for the name cupcake or cupcake. In previous centuries, before muffin tins werewidely available, the cakes were often baked in individual potterycups, ramekins, or molds and took their name from the cups theywere baked in. This is the use of the name that has remained, andthe name of "cupcake" is now given to any small cake that is aboutthe size of a teacup. While English fairy cakes vary in size morethan American cupcakes, they are traditionally smaller and arerarely topped with elaborate icing.The other kind of "cup cake"referred to a cake whose ingredients were measured by volume, usinga standard-sized cup, instead of being weighed. Recipes whoseingredients were measured using a standard-sized cup could also bebaked in cups; however, they were more commonly baked in tins aslayers or loaves. In later years, when the use of volumemeasurements was firmly established in home kitchens, these recipesbecame known as 1234 cakes or quarter cakes, so called because theyare made up of four ingredients: one cup of butter, two cups ofsugar, three cups of flour, and four eggs. They are plain yellowcakes, somewhat less rich and less expensive than pound cake, dueto using about half as much butter and eggs compared to pound cake.The names of these two major classes of cakes were intended tosignal the method to the baker; "cup cake" uses a volumemeasurement, and "pound cake" uses a weight measurement.
Onigiri Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
O-nigiri (お握り or 御握り; おにぎり?), also known as o-musubi (お結び; おむすび?),nigirimeshi (握り飯; にぎりめし?) or rice ball, is a Japanese food madefrom white rice formed into triangular or oval shapes and oftenwrapped in nori (seaweed). Traditionally, an onigiri is filled withpickled ume (umeboshi), salted salmon, katsuobushi, kombu, tarako,or any other salty or sour ingredient as a natural preservative.Because of the popularity of onigiri in Japan, most conveniencestores stock their onigiri with various fillings and flavors. Thereare even specialized shops which only sell onigiri to take out.
Chameleon Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Chameleons or chamaeleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are a distinctiveand highly specialized clade of lizards. The approximately 180species of chameleon come in a range of colors, and many specieshave the ability to change colors. Chameleons are distinguished bytheir zygodactylous feet; their very long, highly modified, rapidlyextrudable tongues; their swaying gait; and crests or horns ontheir distinctively shaped heads. Most species, the larger ones inparticular, also have a prehensile tail. Chameleons' eyes areindependently mobile, but in aiming at a prey item, they focusforward in coordination, affording the animal stereoscopic vision.Chameleons are adapted for climbing and visual hunting. They arefound in warm habitats that range from rain forest to desertconditions, various species occurring in Africa, Madagascar,southern Europe, and across southern Asia as far as Sri Lanka. Theyalso have been introduced to Hawaii, California, and Florida, andoften are kept as household pets.
Steam Engine Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work usingsteam as its working fluid.Using boiling water to producemechanical motion goes back over 2000 years, but early devices werenot practical. The Spanish inventor Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumontpatented in 1606 the first steam engine. In 1698 Thomas Saverypatented a steam pump that used steam in direct contact with thewater being pumped. Savery's steam pump used condensing steam tocreate a vacuum and draw water into a chamber, and then appliedpressurized steam to further pump the water. Thomas Newcomen'satmospheric engine was the first commercial true steam engine usinga piston, and was used in 1712 for pumping in a mine.In 1781 JamesWatt patented a steam engine that produced continuous rotarymotion.[1] Watt's ten-horsepower engines enabled a wide range ofmanufacturing machinery to be powered. The engines could be sitedanywhere that water and coal or wood fuel could be obtained. By1883, engines that could provide 10,000 hp had become feasible.[2]Steam engines could also be applied to vehicles such as tractionengines and the railway locomotives. The stationary steam enginewas a key component of the Industrial Revolution, allowingfactories to locate where water power was unavailable.Steam enginesare external combustion engines,[3] where the working fluid isseparate from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sourcessuch as solar power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may beused. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process iscalled the Rankine cycle. In the cycle, water is heated andtransforms into steam within a boiler operating at a high pressure.When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is done.The reduced-pressure steam is then condensed and pumped back intothe boiler.In general usage, the term steam engine can refer toeither the integrated steam plants (including boilers etc.) such asrailway steam locomotives and portable engines, or may refer to thepiston or turbine machinery alone, as in the beam engine andstationary steam engine. Specialized devices such as steam hammersand steam pile drivers are dependent on steam supplied from aseparate boiler. Reciprocating piston type steam engines remainedthe dominant source of power until the early 20th century, whenadvances in the design of electric motors and internal combustionengines gradually resulted in the replacement of reciprocating(piston) steam engines in commercial usage, and the ascendancy ofsteam turbines in power generation.[4] Considering that the greatmajority of worldwide electric generation is produced by turbinetype steam engines, the "steam age" is continuing with energylevels far beyond those of the turn of the 19th century.
Snow Leopard Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The snow leopard (Panthera uncia syn. Uncia uncia) is a large catnative to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia. It islisted as endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Speciesbecause as of 2003, the size of the global population was estimatedat 4,080-6,590 adults, of which fewer than 2,500 individuals mayreproduce in the wild.[1]Snow leopards inhabit alpine and subalpinezones at elevations from 3,000 to 4,500 m (9,800 to 14,800 ft). Inthe northern range countries, they also occur at lowerelevations.[3]Taxonomically, the snow leopard was classified asUncia uncia since the early 1930s.[2] Based on genotyping studies,the cat has been considered a member of the genus Panthera since2008.[1][4] Two subspecies have been attributed, but geneticdifferences between the two have not been settled.[1]The snowleopard is the National Heritage Animal of Pakistan.
Akita Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The Akita (秋田犬 Akita-inu?) is a large breed of dog originating fromthe mountainous northern regions of Japan. There are two separatevarieties of Akita: a Japanese strain, known as the "Akita Inu" or"Japanese Akita"; and an American strain, known as the "Akita" or"American Akita".[2] The Japanese strain comes in a small choice ofcolors, with all other colors considered atypical of the breed,while the American strain comes in all dog colors.[2] The Akita hasa short double coat, similar to that of many other northern spitzbreeds such as the Siberian Husky, but long coated dogs can befound in many litters due to a recessive gene.The Akita is apowerful, independent and dominant breed, commonly aloof withstrangers but affectionate with family members. As a breed, Akitasare generally hardy, but they have been known to suffer fromvarious genetic conditions and be sensitive to certain drugs.Inmost countries, the American strain of Akita is now considered aseparate breed. In the United States and Canada, however, the twostrains are considered a single breed with differences in type. Fora while, the American strain of Akita was known in some countriesas the "Great Japanese Dog". Both forms of Akita are probably bestknown worldwide from the true story of Hachikō, a loyal Akita dogwho lived in Japan before World War II.
Japanese macaque Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The Japanese macaque (/məˈkɑːk/; Macaca fuscata), is a terrestrialOld World monkey species native to Japan. They are also sometimesknown as the snow monkey because they live in areas where snowcovers the ground for months each year – no other non-human primateis more northern-living, nor lives in a colder climate. Individualshave brown-grey fur, red faces, and short tails. There are twosubspecies.In Japan, the species is known as Nihonzaru (Nihon ニホン"Japan" + saru ザル "monkey") to distinguish it from other primates,but the Japanese macaque is very familiar in Japan, so whenJapanese people simply say saru, they usually have in mind theJapanese macaque.
Villa Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house.Since its origins in the Roman villa, the idea and function of avilla have evolved considerably. After the fall of the RomanRepublic, villas became small farming compounds, which wereincreasingly fortified in Late Antiquity, sometimes transferred tothe Church for reuse as a monastery. Then they gradually re-evolvedthrough the Middle Ages, into elegant upper-class country homes. Inmodern parlance 'villa' can refer to various types and sizes ofresidences, ranging from the suburban "semi-detached" double villato residences in the wildland–urban interface.
Elephant Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and theorder Proboscidea. Two species are traditionally recognised, theAfrican elephant (Loxodonta africana) and the Asian elephant(Elephas maximus), although some evidence suggests that Africanbush elephants and African forest elephants are separate species(L. africana and L. cyclotis respectively). Elephants are scatteredthroughout sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia.Elephantidae are the only surviving family of the orderProboscidea; other, now extinct, families of the order includemammoths and mastodons. Male African elephants are the largestsurviving terrestrial animals and can reach a height of 4 m (13 ft)and weigh 7,000 kg (15,000 lb). All elephants have severaldistinctive features the most notable of which is a long trunk orproboscis, used for many purposes, particularly breathing, liftingwater and grasping objects. Their incisors grow into tusks, whichcan serve as weapons and as tools for moving objects and digging.Elephants' large ear flaps help to control their body temperature.Their pillar-like legs can carry their great weight. Africanelephants have larger ears and concave backs while Asian elephantshave smaller ears and convex or level backs.Elephants areherbivorous and can be found in different habitats includingsavannahs, forests, deserts and marshes. They prefer to stay nearwater. They are considered to be keystone species due to theirimpact on their environments. Other animals tend to keep theirdistance, predators such as lions, tigers, hyenas and wild dogsusually target only the young elephants (or "calves"). Females("cows") tend to live in family groups, which can consist of onefemale with her calves or several related females with offspring.The groups are led by an individual known as the matriarch, oftenthe oldest cow. Elephants have a fission-fusion society in whichmultiple family groups come together to socialise. Males ("bulls")leave their family groups when they reach puberty, and may livealone or with other males. Adult bulls mostly interact with familygroups when looking for a mate and enter a state of increasedtestosterone and aggression known as musth, which helps them gaindominance and reproductive success. Calves are the centre ofattention in their family groups and rely on their mothers for aslong as three years. Elephants can live up to 70 years in the wild.They communicate by touch, sight, smell and sound; elephants useinfrasound, and seismic communication over long distances. Elephantintelligence has been compared with that of primates and cetaceans.They appear to have self-awareness and show empathy for dying ordead individuals of their kind.African elephants are listed asvulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN), while the Asian elephant is classed as endangered. One ofthe biggest threats to elephant populations is the ivory trade, asthe animals are poached for their ivory tusks. Other threats towild elephants include habitat destruction and conflicts with localpeople. Elephants are used as working animals in Asia. In the pastthey were used in war; today, they are often put on display in zoosand circuses. Elephants are highly recognisable and have beenfeatured in art, folklore, religion, literature and popularculture.
Hot dog Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A hot dog (also spelled hotdog) is a cooked sausage, traditionallygrilled or steamed and served in a sliced bun as a sandwich. Hotdog variants include the corn dog dipped in corn batter and deepfried, pigs in blankets wrapped in dough, baked, and served as horsd'oeuvres, and Beanie Weenies chopped and mixed with baked beans.Typical hot dog garnishes include mustard, ketchup, onions,mayonnaise, relish, cheese, chili, and sauerkraut.The sausages wereculturally imported from Germany and popularized in the UnitedStates, where they were a working class street food sold at hot dogstands that came to be associated with baseball and America. Hotdog preparation and condiment styles also vary regionally acrossthe United States. The hot dog's cultural traditions include theNathan's Hot Dog Eating Contest and Wienermobile.
Australian Shepherd Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The Australian Shepherd, commonly known as the Aussie, is a breedof dog that was developed on ranches in the western UnitedStates.[2] Despite its name, the breed was not developed inAustralia, but rather in the United States where they were seen inthe West as early as the 1800s.[3][4][5] The breed rose graduallyin popularity with the boom of western riding after World War I.They became known to the general public through rodeos, horseshows, and Disney movies made for television.For many years,Aussies have been valued by stockmen for their versatility andtrainability. They have a similar look to the popular EnglishShepherd and Border Collie breeds. While they continue to work asstockdogs and compete in herding trials, the breed has earnedrecognition in other roles due to their trainability and eagernessto please, and are highly regarded for their skills inobedience.[6] Like all working breeds, the Aussie has considerableenergy and drive, and usually needs a job to do. It often excels atdog sports such as dog agility, flyball, and frisbee. They are alsohighly successful search and rescue dogs, disaster dogs, detectiondogs, guide, service, and therapy dogs.
Pea Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-podof the pod fruit Pisum sativum.[1] Each pod contains several peas.Peapods are botanically a fruit,[2] since they contain seedsdeveloped from the ovary of a (pea) flower. The name is also usedto describe other edible seeds from the Fabaceae such as the pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and the seedsfrom several species of Lathyrus.P. sativum is an annual plant,with a life cycle of one year. It is a cool season crop grown inmany parts of the world; planting can take place from winter toearly summer depending on location. The average pea weighs between0.1 and 0.36 grams.[3] The immature peas (and in snow peas thetender pod as well) are used as a vegetable, fresh, frozen orcanned; varieties of the species typically called field peas aregrown to produce dry peas like the split pea shelled from thematured pod. These are the basis of pease porridge and pea soup,staples of medieval cuisine; in Europe, consuming fresh immaturegreen peas was an innovation of Early Modern cuisine.The wild peais restricted to the Mediterranean basin and the Near East. Theearliest archaeological finds of peas date from the late neolithicera of current Greece, Syria, Turkey and Jordan. In Egypt, earlyfinds date from ca. 4800–4400 BC in the Nile delta area, and fromca. 3800–3600 BC in Upper Egypt. The pea was also present inGeorgia in the 5th millennium BC. Farther east, the finds areyounger. Peas were present in Afghanistan ca. 2000 BC, in Harappa,Pakistan, and in northwest India in 2250–1750 BC. In the secondhalf of the 2nd millennium BC, this pulse crop appears in theGangetic basin and southern India.
Dongpo pork Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Dongpo pork (simplified Chinese: 东坡肉; traditional Chinese: 東坡肉;pinyin: dōngpōròu) is a Hangzhou dish which is made by pan-fryingand then red cooking pork belly. The pork is cut to around 2 inchessquare in dimensions, consisting of half fat and half lean meat.The mouth feel is oily but not greasy, with the fragrance of wine.The dish is named after the famed Song Dynasty poet SuDongpo.Legend has it that while Su Dongpo was banished to Hangzhou,in a life of poverty, he made an improvement of the traditionalprocess. He first braised the pork, added Chinese fermented wineand made red-braised pork, then slowly stewed it on a low heat. Thelegend, like that for General Tso's Chicken, is romantic, nothistorical. Lin Hsiang Ju and Lin Tsuifeng in their scholarlyChinese Gastronomy give a recipe, “The Fragrance of Pork: TungpoPork,” and remark that the “square of fat is named after Su Tungpo,the poet, for unknown reasons. Perhaps it is just because he wouldhave liked it.” [3]A popular tourist website relates that DongpoPork experienced three phases from its first appearance to beingwidely known. The whole history was generally in line with the lifeexperience of Su Dongpo. Starting from Xuzhou, a northern city ofJiangsu province, in which Dongpo pork appeared in the name ofHuizeng pork, to Huangzhou, today's Huanggang of Hubei province, inwhich Su Dongpo completed the whole cooking method, and finally toHangzhou, in which Dongpo pork was officially named and widelyknown in China.
Beefsteak Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A beefsteak is a flat cut of beef, usually cut perpendicular to themuscle fibers. Beefsteaks are usually grilled, pan-fried, orbroiled. The more tender cuts from the loin and rib are cookedquickly, using dry heat, and served whole. Less tender cuts fromthe chuck or round are cooked with moist heat or are mechanicallytenderized (cf. cube steak).
Crossing bridge noodles Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Crossing-the-bridge noodles is a rice noodle soup from Yunnanprovince, China. It is one of the most well-known dishes in Yunnancuisine.The dish is served with a large bowl of boiling hot brothand the soup ingredients separate. The soup ingredients are servedon a cutting board or plate and include raw vegetables and lightlycooked meats. Common ingredients include thin slices of ham, chunksof chicken, chicken skin, strips of bean curd sheets, chives,sprouts and rice noodles. Once added into the broth, it cooksquickly with a layer of schmaltz and oil glistening on top. Thesoup takes a few minutes to cook, and it is then spooned out intosmall bowls. Jim Thurman of LA Weekly writes that "with the ricenoodles and fresh chicken, it's reminiscent of an extremely subtleversion of Vietnamese pho ga. Which shouldn't surprise anyone, asYunnan shares a border with Vietnam."
German Shepherd Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The German Shepherd (German: DeutscherSchäferhund, German pronunciation: [ˈʃɛːfɐˌhʊnt]) is a breed oflarge-sized working dog that originated in Germany. The breed'sofficially recognized name is German Shepherd Dog in the Englishlanguage, sometimes abbreviated as "GSD", and was also formerlyknown as the Alsatian and Alsatian Wolf Dog in Britain.[4] TheGerman Shepherd is a relatively new breed of dog, with their origindating to 1899. As part of the Herding Group, German Shepherds areworking dogs developed originally for herding sheep. Since thattime, however, because of their strength, intelligence,trainability and obedience, German Shepherds around the world areoften the preferred breed for many types of work, includingsearch-and-rescue, police and military roles and even acting.[5]The German Shepherd is the second-most popular breed of dog in theUnited States[6] and fourth-most popular in the UnitedKingdom.
Mooncake Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Mooncake (simplified Chinese: 月饼; traditional Chinese: 月餅; pinyin:yuè bĭng) is a Chinese bakery product traditionally eaten duringthe Mid-Autumn Festival (Zhongqiujie). The festival is for lunarworship and moon watching, when mooncakes are regarded as anindispensable delicacy. Mooncakes are offered between friends or onfamily gatherings while celebrating the festival. The Mid-AutumnFestival is one of the four most important Chinesefestivals.Typical mooncakes are round pastries, measuring about 10cm in diameter and 3–4 cm thick. This is the Cantonese mooncake,eaten in Southern China in Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macau. A richthick filling usually made from red bean or lotus seed paste issurrounded by a thin (2–3 mm) crust and may contain yolks fromsalted duck eggs. Mooncakes are usually eaten in small wedgesaccompanied by Chinese tea. Today, it is customary for businessmenand families to present them to their clients or relatives aspresents,[1] helping to fuel a demand for high-end mooncake styles.The energy content of a mooncake is approximately 1,000 calories or4,200 kilojoules (for a cake measuring 10 cm (3.9 in)), but energycontent varies with filling and size.
Spaghetti Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Spaghetti is a long, thin, cylindrical pasta of Italian origin.[1]Spaghetti is the plural form of the Italian word spaghetto, whichis a diminutive of spago, meaning "thin string" or"twine".[1]Spaghetti is made of semolina or flour and water.Italian dried spaghetti is made from durum wheat semolina, butoutside of Italy it may be made with other kinds of flour.Traditionally, most spaghetti was 50 cm (20 in) long, but shorterlengths gained in popularity during the latter half of the 20thcentury and now spaghetti is most commonly available in 25–30 cm(10–12 in) lengths. A variety of pasta dishes are based on it, fromspaghetti alla Carbonara or garlic and oil to a spaghetti withtomato sauce, meat and other sauces.
Moscow Kremlin Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Моско́вский Кремль, tr. MoskovskiyKreml; IPA: [mɐˈskofskʲɪj krʲemlʲ]), usually referred to as simplythe Kremlin, is a historic fortified complex at the heart ofMoscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil'sCathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden tothe west. It is the best known of kremlins (Russian citadels) andincludes five palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing KremlinWall with Kremlin towers. The complex serves as the officialresidence of the President of the Russian Federation.The nameKremlin means "fortress inside a city",[1] and is often used as ametonym to refer to the government of the Russian Federation in asimilar sense to how the White House is used to refer to theExecutive Office of the President of the United States. Indeed,even the Russian president's official website is Kremlin.ru. It hadpreviously been used to refer to the government of the Soviet Union(1922–1991) and its highest members (such as general secretaries,premiers, presidents, ministers, and commissars). "Kremlinology"refers to the study of Soviet and Russian politics.
Whippet Puzzle 1.21
BookMan
The Whippet (also English Whippet or Snap dog) is a breed ofmedium-sized dog. They are a sighthound breed that originated inEngland, where they descended from greyhounds. Whippets today stillstrongly resemble a smaller greyhound. Shown in the Hound group,Whippets have relatively few health problems other than arrhythmia.Whippets also participate in dog sports such as lure coursing,agility, and flyball.Whippets were originally greyhounds that weredeemed unsuitable for hunting because of their size. They werereturned to their peasant breeders after being maimed so that theycould not be used to hunt and break the Forest law. These maimeddogs were bred together and used to catch rats, and hunt rabbits.When the Forest law was repealed, these "miniature greyhounds"became popular in the sport of dog racing. This has led to Whippetsbeing described as "the poor man's racehorse."[3] They are stillfrequently used as racing dogs today, as they have the highestrunning speed of breeds their weight: 35 miles per hour (56 km/h)and even challenge greyhounds for top speed. Whippets are howeverthe fastest accelerating dog in the world.
Molten chocolate cake Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Molten chocolate cake or lava cake is a popular dessert thatcombines the elements of a flourless chocolate cake (sometimescalled a chocolate decadence cake) and a soufflé. Some other namesused are chocolate fondant,[1] chocolate moelleux and chocolatelava cake.The United States-based chef Jean-Georges Vongerichtenclaims to have invented molten chocolate cake in New York City in1987, but the French chef and chocolatier Jacques Torres hasdisputed that claim, arguing that such a dish already existed inFrance. According to Vongerichten, he pulled a chocolate spongecake from the oven before it was done and found that the center wasstill runny, but was warm and had both a good taste and a goodtexture. Regardless of who invented the dish, Vongerichten has beencredited with popularizing it in the United States, and it is nowalmost a de rigueur inclusion on high-end restaurant dessert menus.
Tibetan Mastiff Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The Tibetan Mastiff (Wylie: 'dogs khyi;[1] Lhasa dialect IPA:[tʰòcʰi]) is an ancient breed and type of domestic dog (Canis lupusfamiliaris) originating with nomadic cultures of Tibet, China,Nepal, and Central Asia.The Tibetan Mastiff also known as"Dok-Khyi"[2] (translated as "nomad dog", "dog which may be tied","dog which may be kept"), reflects its use as a guardian of herds,flocks, tents, villages, monasteries, and palaces, much as the oldEnglish ban-dog (also meaning tied dog) was a dog tied outside thehome as a guardian. However, in nomad camps and in villages, thedo-khyi is traditionally allowed to run loose at night.[citationneeded]The guardian type from which the modern Tibetan Mastiffbreed has been derived was known across the ancient world by manynames. Bhote Kukur in Nepali as bhote means someone from Tibet andkukur means dog. The Chinese name for the breed is 藏獒 (Mandarin:Zàng áo; Cantonese: Tzong ngou), meaning "Tibetan mastiff-dog". InMongolia, it is called bankhar.The name Tibetan mastiff is amisnomer; it is not a true mastiff. The term "mastiff" was usedprimarily because it meant "big dog". Early Western visitors toTibet misnamed several of its breeds: The "Tibetan Terrier" is nota terrier and the "Tibetan Spaniel" is not a spaniel. A better namefor the dog would be Tibetan mountain dog or, to encompass thelandrace breed throughout its range, Himalayan mountain dog.
Curry Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Curry (/ˈkʌri/, plural curries) is a dish whose origins areSouthern and Southeastern Asian cuisines, as well as New Worldcuisines influenced by them such as Trinidadian, Jamaican andFijian. The common feature is the incorporation of complexcombinations of spices or herbs, usually including fresh or driedhot chillies. Some limit the use of the term curry to dishesprepared in a sauce,[1][2] but curries may be "wet" or "dry". Acurry dish may be spiced with leaves from the curry tree, but manycurries do not have this ingredient.In original traditionalcuisines, the precise selection of spices for each dish is a matterof national or regional cultural tradition, religious practice,and, to some extent, family preference. Such dishes are called byspecific names that refer to their ingredients, spicing, andcooking methods.[3]Traditionally, spices are used both whole andground; cooked or raw; and they may be added at different timesduring the cooking process to produce different results.Currypowder, a commercially prepared mixture of spices, is largely aWestern notion, dating to the 18th century. Such mixtures arecommonly thought to have first been prepared by Indian merchantsfor sale to members of the British Colonial government and armyreturning to Britain.Dishes called "curry" may contain meat,poultry, fish, or shellfish, either alone or in combination withvegetables. Many are instead entirely vegetarian, especially amongthose who hold ethical or religious proscriptions against eatingmeat or seafood.Curries may be either "wet" or "dry." Wet curriescontain significant amounts of sauce or gravy based on yoghurt,coconut milk, legume purée (dal), or stock. Dry curries are cookedwith very little liquid which is allowed to evaporate, leaving theother ingredients coated with the spice mixture.The main spicesfound in most South Asian curry powders are turmeric, coriander,and cumin; a wide range of additional spices may be includeddepending on the geographic region and the foods being included(white/red meat, fish, lentils, rice and vegetables).
Waterfall Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A waterfall is a place where water flows over a vertical drop inthe course of a stream or river. Waterfalls also occur wheremeltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg or iceshelf.Waterfalls are commonly formed when a river is young. Atthese times the channel is often narrow and deep. When the rivercourses over resistant bedrock, erosion happens slowly, whiledownstream the erosion occurs more rapidly. As the watercourseincreases its velocity at the edge of the waterfall, it plucksmaterial from the riverbed. Whirlpools created in the turbulence aswell as sand and stones carried by the watercourse increase theerosion capacity. This causes the waterfall to carve deeper intothe bed and to recede upstream. Often over time, the waterfall willrecede back to form a canyon or gorge downstream as it recedesupstream, and it will carve deeper into the ridge above it. Therate of retreat for a waterfall can be as high as one and halfmeters per year.Often, the rock stratum just below the moreresistant shelf will be of a softer type, meaning that undercuttingdue to splashback will occur here to form a shallow cave-likeformation known as a rock shelter under and behind the waterfall.Eventually, the outcropping, more resistant cap rock will collapseunder pressure to add blocks of rock to the base of the waterfall.These blocks of rock are then broken down into smaller boulders byattrition as they collide with each other, and they also erode thebase of the waterfall by abrasion, creating a deep plunge pool orgorge.Streams become wider and shallower just above waterfalls dueto flowing over the rock shelf, and there is usually a deep areajust below the waterfall because of the kinetic energy of the waterhitting the bottom. Waterfalls normally form in a rocky area due toerosion. After a long period of being fully formed, the waterfalling off the ledge will retreat, causing a horizontal pitparallel to the waterfall wall. Eventually, as the pit growsdeeper, the waterfall collapses to be replaced by a steeply slopingstretch of river bed.[1] In addition to gradual processes such aserosion, earth movement caused by earthquakes or landslides orvolcanoes can cause a differential in land heights which interferewith the natural course of a water flow, and result in waterfalls.Ariver sometimes flows over a large step in the rocks that may havebeen formed by a fault line. Waterfalls can occur along the edge ofa glacial trough, where a stream or river flowing into a glaciercontinues to flow into a valley after the glacier has receded ormelted. The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley are examples ofthis phenomenon, which is referred to as a hanging valley. Anotherreason hanging valleys may form is where two rivers join and one isflowing faster than the other.[1] Waterfalls can be grouped intoten broad classes based on the average volume of water present onthe fall (which depends on both the waterfall's average flow andits height) using a logarithmic scale. Class 10 waterfalls includeNiagara Falls, Paulo Afonso Falls and Khone Falls.Classes of otherwell-known waterfalls include Victoria Falls and Kaieteur Falls(Class 9); Rhine Falls and Gullfoss (Class 8); Angel Falls andDettifoss (Class 7); Yosemite Falls, Lower Yellowstone Falls andUmphang Thee Lor Sue Waterfall (Class 6); Sutherland Falls (Class5).
Samoyed Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The Samoyed (/ˈsæməjɛd/ SAM-ə-yed or /səˈmɔɪ.ɛd/ sə-MOY-ed;[1][2]Russian: Самоедская собака) is a breed of dog that takes its namefrom the Samoyedic peoples of Siberia. These nomadic reindeerherders bred the fluffy white dogs to help with the herding, and topull sleds when they moved. An alternate name for the breed,especially in Europe,[citation needed] is Bjelkier.
Bibimbap Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Bibimbap (비빔밥, Korean pronunciation: [pibimbap],[1] sometimesanglicized bi bim bap or bi bim bop) is a signature Korean dish.The word literally means "mixed rice". Bibimbap is served as a bowlof warm white rice topped with namul (sautéed and seasonedvegetables) and gochujang (chili pepper paste), soy sauce, ordoenjang, a salty soybean paste. A raw or fried egg and sliced meat(usually beef) are common additions. The hot dish is stirredtogether thoroughly just before eating.[2]In South Korea, Jeonju,Jinju, and Tongyeong are especially famous for their versions ofbibimbap.[3] In 2011, it was listed at number 40 on the World's 50most delicious foods readers' poll compiled by CNN Travel.
White Rose Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose, Japanese rose, or Ramanas rose) is aspecies of rose native to eastern Asia, in northeastern China,Japan, Korea and southeastern Siberia, where it grows on the coast,often on sand dunes.[1] It should not be confused with Rosamultiflora, which is also known as "Japanese rose".
Giraffe Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toedungulate mammal, the tallest living terrestrial animal and thelargest ruminant. Its species name refers to its camel-likeappearance and the patches of color on its fur. Its chiefdistinguishing characteristics are its extremely long neck andlegs, its horn-like ossicones, and its distinctive coat patterns.It is classified under the family Giraffidae, along with itsclosest extant relative, the okapi. The nine subspecies aredistinguished by their coat patterns.The giraffe's scattered rangeextends from Chad in the north to South Africa in the south, andfrom Niger in the west to Somalia in the east. Giraffes usuallyinhabit savannas, grasslands, and open woodlands. Their primaryfood source is acacia leaves, which they browse at heights mostother herbivores cannot reach. Giraffes are preyed on by lions;their calves are also targeted by leopards, spotted hyenas, andwild dogs. Adult giraffes do not have strong social bonds, thoughthey do gather in loose aggregations if they happen to be moving inthe same general direction. Males establish social hierarchiesthrough "necking", which are combat bouts where the neck is used asa weapon. Dominant males gain mating access to females, which bearthe sole responsibility for raising the young.The giraffe hasintrigued various cultures, both ancient and modern, for itspeculiar appearance, and has often been featured in paintings,books, and cartoons. It is classified by the International Unionfor Conservation of Nature as Least Concern, but has beenextirpated from many parts of its former range, and some subspeciesare classified as Endangered. Nevertheless, giraffes are stillfound in numerous national parks and game reserves.
Turkey meat Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Turkey meat is the meat from turkeys, typically domesticatedturkeys. It is a popular poultry product used in a number ofculturally significant events as well as for everyday nourishment.
Sunshine Girl Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Love sports and love to laugh, laugh is the kind of awesomeness orto attractivenessBut also very lively enthusiasm for anything fullof powerIf she does not love to laugh and shy that would not work,which is to be from the heartIf she does not laugh it becomeshypocrisy rather than natural sunlight charming
Sushi Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Sushi (すし, 寿司, 鮨?) is a Japanese food consisting of cookedvinegared rice (鮨飯 sushi-meshi?) combined with other ingredients(ネタ neta?), seafood, vegetables and sometimes tropical fruits.Ingredients and forms of sushi presentation vary widely, but theingredient which all sushi have in common is rice (also referred toas shari (しゃり?) or sumeshi (酢飯?)).Sushi can be prepared with eitherbrown or white rice. Sushi is often prepared with raw seafood, butsome common varieties of sushi use cooked ingredients or arevegetarian. Raw fish (or occasionally other meat) sliced and servedwithout rice is called "sashimi".Sushi is often served with gari(ginger), wasabi, and soy sauce. Popular garnishes are often madeusing daikon.
Train Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A train is a form of rail transport consisting of a series ofvehicles that usually runs along a rail track to transport cargo orpassengers although magnetic levitation trains that float above thetrack exist too.[1] Motive power is provided by a separatelocomotive or individual motors in self-propelled multiple units.Although historically steam propulsion dominated, the most commonmodern forms are diesel and electric locomotives, the lattersupplied by overhead wires or additional rails. Other energysources include horses, rope or wire, gravity, pneumatics,batteries, and gas turbines. Train tracks usually consists of two,three or four or five rails, with a limited number of monorails andmaglev guideways in the mix. The word 'train' comes from the OldFrench trahiner, from the Latin trahere 'pull, draw'.[2]There arevarious types of trains that are designed for particular purposes.A train may consist of a combination of one or more locomotives andattached railroad cars, or a self-propelled multiple unit (oroccasionally a single or articulated powered coach, called arailcar). The first trains were rope-hauled, gravity powered orpulled by horses. From the early 19th century almost all werepowered by steam locomotives. From the 1910s onwards the steamlocomotives began to be replaced by less labour-intensive andcleaner (but more complex and expensive) diesel locomotives andelectric locomotives, while at about the same time self-propelledmultiple unit vehicles of either power system became much morecommon in passenger service.A passenger train is one which includespassenger-carrying vehicles which can often be very long and fast.One notable and growing long-distance train category is high-speedrail. In order to achieve much faster operation over 500 km/h (310mph), innovative Maglev technology has been researched for years.In most countries, such as the United Kingdom, the distinctionbetween a tramway and a railway is precise and defined in law. Theterm light rail is sometimes used for a modern tram system, but itmay also mean an intermediate form between a tram and a train,similar to a subway except that it may have level crossings.Afreight train (also known as goods train) uses freight cars (alsoknown as wagons or trucks) to transport goods or materials (cargo)– essentially any train that is not used for carrying passengers.
Travel Trains Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A train is a form of rail transport consisting of a series ofvehicles that usually runs along a rail track to transport cargo orpassengers although magnetic levitation trains that float above thetrack exist too.[1] Motive power is provided by a separatelocomotive or individual motors in self-propelled multiple units.Although historically steam propulsion dominated, the most commonmodern forms are diesel and electric locomotives, the lattersupplied by overhead wires or additional rails. Other energysources include horses, rope or wire, gravity, pneumatics,batteries, and gas turbines. Train tracks usually consists of two,three or four or five rails, with a limited number of monorails andmaglev guideways in the mix. The word 'train' comes from the OldFrench trahiner, from the Latin trahere 'pull, draw'.[2]There arevarious types of trains that are designed for particular purposes.A train may consist of a combination of one or more locomotives andattached railroad cars, or a self-propelled multiple unit (oroccasionally a single or articulated powered coach, called arailcar). The first trains were rope-hauled, gravity powered orpulled by horses. From the early 19th century almost all werepowered by steam locomotives. From the 1910s onwards the steamlocomotives began to be replaced by less labour-intensive andcleaner (but more complex and expensive) diesel locomotives andelectric locomotives, while at about the same time self-propelledmultiple unit vehicles of either power system became much morecommon in passenger service.A passenger train is one which includespassenger-carrying vehicles which can often be very long and fast.One notable and growing long-distance train category is high-speedrail. In order to achieve much faster operation over 500 km/h (310mph), innovative Maglev technology has been researched for years.In most countries, such as the United Kingdom, the distinctionbetween a tramway and a railway is precise and defined in law. Theterm light rail is sometimes used for a modern tram system, but itmay also mean an intermediate form between a tram and a train,similar to a subway except that it may have level crossings.Afreight train (also known as goods train) uses freight cars (alsoknown as wagons or trucks) to transport goods or materials (cargo)– essentially any train that is not used for carrying passengers.
Great Wall Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made ofstone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generallybuilt along an east-to-west line across the historical northernborders of China in part to protect the Chinese Empire or itsprototypical states against intrusions by various nomadic groups ormilitary incursions by various warlike peoples or forces. Severalwalls were being built as early as the 7th century BC;[3] these,later joined together and made bigger and stronger, are nowcollectively referred to as the Great Wall.[4] Especially famous isthe wall built between 220–206 BC by the first Emperor of China,Qin Shi Huang. Little of that wall remains. Since then, the GreatWall has on and off been rebuilt, maintained, and enhanced; themajority of the existing wall is from the Ming Dynasty.Otherpurposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowingthe imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road,regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigrationand emigration. Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of theGreat Wall were enhanced by the construction of watch towers, troopbarracks, garrison stations, signaling capabilities through themeans of smoke or fire, and the fact that the path of the GreatWall also served as a transportation corridor.The main Great Wallline stretches from Shanhaiguan in the east, to Lop Lake in thewest, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge ofInner Mongolia. A comprehensive archaeological survey, usingadvanced technologies, has concluded that the Ming walls measure8,850 km (5,500 mi).[5] This is made up of 6,259 km (3,889 mi)sections of actual wall, 359 km (223 mi) of trenches and 2,232 km(1,387 mi) of natural defensive barriers such as hills andrivers.[5] Another archaeological survey found that the entire wallwith all of its branches measure out to be 21,196 km (13,171 mi).
Magnificent Waterfall Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A waterfall is a place where water flows over a vertical drop inthe course of a stream or river. Waterfalls also occur wheremeltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg or iceshelf.Waterfalls are commonly formed when a river is young.[1] Atthese times the channel is often narrow and deep. When the rivercourses over resistant bedrock, erosion happens slowly, whiledownstream the erosion occurs more rapidly.[1][2] As thewatercourse increases its velocity at the edge of the waterfall, itplucks material from the riverbed. Whirlpools created in theturbulence as well as sand and stones carried by the watercourseincrease the erosion capacity.[1] This causes the waterfall tocarve deeper into the bed and to recede upstream. Often over time,the waterfall will recede back to form a canyon or gorge downstreamas it recedes upstream, and it will carve deeper into the ridgeabove it.[3] The rate of retreat for a waterfall can be as high asone and half meters per year.[1]Often, the rock stratum just belowthe more resistant shelf will be of a softer type, meaning thatundercutting due to splashback will occur here to form a shallowcave-like formation known as a rock shelter under and behind thewaterfall. Eventually, the outcropping, more resistant cap rockwill collapse under pressure to add blocks of rock to the base ofthe waterfall. These blocks of rock are then broken down intosmaller boulders by attrition as they collide with each other, andthey also erode the base of the waterfall by abrasion, creating adeep plunge pool or gorge.Streams become wider and shallower justabove waterfalls due to flowing over the rock shelf, and there isusually a deep area just below the waterfall because of the kineticenergy of the water hitting the bottom. Waterfalls normally form ina rocky area due to erosion. After a long period of being fullyformed, the water falling off the ledge will retreat, causing ahorizontal pit parallel to the waterfall wall. Eventually, as thepit grows deeper, the waterfall collapses to be replaced by asteeply sloping stretch of river bed.[1] In addition to gradualprocesses such as erosion, earth movement caused by earthquakes orlandslides or volcanoes can cause a differential in land heightswhich interfere with the natural course of a water flow, and resultin waterfalls.A river sometimes flows over a large step in therocks that may have been formed by a fault line. Waterfalls canoccur along the edge of a glacial trough, where a stream or riverflowing into a glacier continues to flow into a valley after theglacier has receded or melted. The large waterfalls in YosemiteValley are examples of this phenomenon, which is referred to as ahanging valley. Another reason hanging valleys may form is wheretwo rivers join and one is flowing faster than the other.[1]Waterfalls can be grouped into ten broad classes based on theaverage volume of water present on the fall (which depends on boththe waterfall's average flow and its height) using a logarithmicscale. Class 10 waterfalls include Niagara Falls, Paulo AfonsoFalls and Khone Falls.Classes of other well-known waterfallsinclude Victoria Falls and Kaieteur Falls (Class 9); Rhine Fallsand Gullfoss (Class 8); Angel Falls and Dettifoss (Class 7);Yosemite Falls, Lower Yellowstone Falls and Umphang Thee Lor SueWaterfall (Class 6); Sutherland Falls (Class 5).
Eel as food Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Eels are elongated fish, ranging in length from 5 centimetres (2.0in) to 4 metres (13 ft).[1] Adults range in weight from 30 grams toover 25 kilograms. They possess no pelvic fins, and many speciesalso lack pectoral fins. The dorsal and anal fins are fused withthe caudal or tail fin, forming a single ribbon running along muchof the length of the animal.[2] Most eels live in the shallowwaters of the ocean and burrow into sand, mud, or amongst rocks. Amajority of eel species are nocturnal, and thus are rarely seen.Sometimes, they are seen living together in holes, or "eel pits".Some species of eels also live in deeper water on the continentalshelves and over the slopes deep as 4,000 metres (13,000 ft). Onlymembers of the Anguillidae family regularly inhabit fresh water,but they too return to the sea to breed.[3]Eel blood is poisonousto humans[4] and other mammals,[5][6][7] but both cooking and thedigestive process destroy the toxic protein. The toxin derived fromeel blood serum was used by Charles Richet in his Nobel winningresearch which discovered anaphylaxis (by injecting it into dogsand observing the effect).The Jewish laws of Kashrut forbid theeating of eels.[8] According to the King James version of the OldTestament, it is acceptable to eat fin fish, but fish like eels,which do not have fins, are an abomination and should not beeaten.[9]Japan consumes more than 70 percent of the global eelcatch.
Locomotive Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that providesthe motive power for a train. The word originates from the Latinloco – "from a place", ablative of locus, "place" + Medieval Latinmotivus, "causing motion", and is a shortened form of the termlocomotive engine,[1] first used in the early 19th century todistinguish between mobile and stationary steam engines.Alocomotive has no payload capacity of its own, and its sole purposeis to move the train along the tracks.[2] In contrast, some trainshave self-propelled payload-carrying vehicles. These are notnormally considered locomotives, and may be referred to as multipleunits, motor coaches or railcars. The use of these self-propelledvehicles is increasingly common for passenger trains, but rare forfreight (see CargoSprinter). Vehicles which provide motive power tohaul an unpowered train, but are not generally consideredlocomotives because they have payload space or are rarely detachedfrom their trains, are known as power cars.Traditionally,locomotives pull trains from the front. Increasingly common outsideNorth America is push-pull operation, where one locomotive pullsthe train from the front and another locomotive pushes it frombehind. In this arrangement the locomotive at the rear of the trainis controlled from a control cab at the front of the train.Push-pull operation is generally infeasible in North America as,even if mid-train or tail-end "helpers" are provided, the front-endmight have over 26,000 horsepower (19,000 kW), net for traction,whereas the mid-train and/or tail-end "helpers" might have only9,000 horsepower (6,700 kW), net for traction.
Cappuccino Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
A cappuccino (/ˌkæpəˈtʃiːnoʊ/; Italian pronunciation:[kapputˈtʃiːno]) is an Italian coffee drink which is traditionallyprepared with espresso, hot milk, and steamed-milk foam. The namecomes from the Capuchin friars, referring to the colour of theirhabits.[1]The Viennese bestowed the name Kapuziner in the 19thcentury, although their version included whipped cream, which theItalians found rather heavy.Cappuccino is a coffee drink composedof espresso and hot milk, with the surface topped with foamedmilk.[2] Cappuccinos are most often prepared on an espressomachine. The espresso is extracted into the bottom third of thecup, followed by a similar amount of hot milk, which is prepared byheating and texturing the milk using the espresso machine steamwand. The top third of the drink consists of milk foam; this foamcan be decorated with artistic drawings made with the same milk,called latte art. In a traditional cappuccino, as served in Europeand artisan coffee houses in the United States, the total ofespresso and milk/foam make up between approximately 150–180 ml(5–6 imp fl oz; 5–6 US fl oz). Commercial coffee chains in the USmore often serve the cappuccino as a 360 ml (13 imp fl oz; 12 US floz) drink or larger.[3]Cappuccino differs from caffè latte foremostin size: Cappuccino is traditionally small (max 180 ml), while'latte' traditionally is large (200 ml-300 ml). Cappuccinotraditionally has a layer of textured milk micro foam exceeding 1cm in thickness; Caffè Latte is often served in a large glass;cappuccino mostly in a cup with a handle.The World BaristaChampionships have been arranged annually since 2000, and duringthe course of the competition, the competing barista must produce-for four sensory judges- among other drinks four cappuccinos,defined in WBC Rules and Regulations as [...] ...a coffee and milkbeverage that should produce a harmonious balance of rich, sweetmilk and espresso [...] The cappuccino is prepared with one (1)single shot of espresso, textured milk and foam. A minimum of 1centimeter of foam depth [...] A cappuccino is a beverage between150 ml and 180 ml in total volume
Gerbera Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Gerbera (/ˈdʒɜrbərə/ or /ˈɡɜrbərə/) L. is a genus of plants in the(daisy family). It was named in honour of German botanist andnaturalist Traugott Gerber (1710-1743) who travelled extensively inRussia and was a friend of Carolus Linnaeus.[3]Gerbera is native totropical regions of South America, Africa and Asia. The firstscientific description of a Gerbera was made by J.D. Hooker inCurtis's Botanical Magazine in 1889 when he described Gerberajamesonii, a South African species also known as Transvaal daisy orBarberton Daisy. Gerbera is also commonly known as the AfricanDaisy.Gerbera species bear a large capitulum with striking,two-lipped ray florets in yellow, orange, white, pink or redcolours. The capitulum, which has the appearance of a singleflower, is actually composed of hundreds of individual flowers. Themorphology of the flowers varies depending on their position in thecapitulum. The flower heads can be as small as 7 cm (Gerbera mini'Harley') in diameter or up to 12 cm (Gerbera ‘GoldenSerena’).Gerbera is very popular and widely used as a decorativegarden plant or as cut flowers. The domesticated cultivars aremostly a result of a cross between Gerbera jamesonii and anotherSouth African species Gerbera viridifolia.[4] The cross is known asGerbera hybrida. Thousands of cultivars exist. They vary greatly inshape and size. Colours include white, yellow, orange, red, andpink. The centre of the flower is sometimes black. Often the sameflower can have petals of several different colours.Gerbera is alsoimportant commercially. It is the fifth most used cut flower in theworld (after rose, carnation, chrysanthemum, and tulip). It is alsoused as a model organism in studying flower formation.Gerberacontains naturally occurring coumarin derivatives. Gerbera is atender perennial plant. It is attractive to bees, butterfliesand/or birds, but resistant to deer.[5] Their soil should be keptmoist but not soaked.
Wonderful Night Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Night or night time is the period of time between the sunset andthe sunrise when the Sun is below the horizon. This occurs afterdusk. The opposite of night is day (or "daytime" to distinguish itfrom "day" as used for a 24-hour period). The start and end pointsof time of a night vary based on factors such as season, latitude,longitude and timezone.At any given time, one side of the planetEarth is bathed in light from the Sun (the daytime) and the otherside of the Earth is in the shadow caused by the Earth blocking thelight of the sun. This shadow is what we call the darkness ofnight. Natural illumination is still provided by a combination ofmoonlight, planetary light, starlight, diffuse zodiacal light,gegenschein, and airglow. In some circumstances, bioluminescence,aurorae, and lightning can provide some illumination. The glowprovided by artificial illumination is sometimes referred to aslight pollution because it can interfere with observationalastronomy and ecosystems.
Hay Puzzle 1.23
BookMan
Hay is grass, legumes or other herbaceous plants that have beencut, dried, and stored for use as animal fodder, particularly forgrazing livestock such as cattle, horses, goats, and sheep. Hay isalso fed to pets such as rabbits and guinea pigs. Pigs may be fedhay, but they do not digest it as efficiently as more fullyherbivorous animals.Hay can be used as animal fodder when or wherethere is not enough pasture or rangeland on which to graze ananimal, when grazing is unavailable due to weather (such as duringthe winter) or when lush pasture by itself is too rich for thehealth of the animal. It is also fed during times when an animal isunable to access pasture, such as when animals are kept in a stableor barn.