Chemical Engineering 8.9
In the field of engineering, a chemical engineer is a professionalwho works principally in the chemical industry to convert basic rawmaterials into a variety of products, and deals with the design andoperation of plants and equipment to perform such work. In general,a chemical engineer is one who applies and uses principles ofchemical engineering in any of its various practical applications;these often include 1) design, manufacture, and operation of plantsand machinery in industrial chemical and related processes("chemical process engineers"); 2) development of new or adaptedsubstances for products ranging from foods and beverages tocosmetics to cleaners to pharmaceutical ingredients, among manyother products ("chemical product engineers"); and 3) developmentof new technologies such as fuel cells, hydrogen power andnanotechnology, as well as working in fields wholly or partiallyderived from Chemical Engineering such as materials science,polymer engineering, and biomedical engineering.In the US, theDepartment of Labor estimated in 2008 the number of chemicalengineers to be 31,000. According to a 2011 salary survey by theAmerican Institution of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), the medianannual salary for a chemical engineer was approximately $110,000.In one salary survey, chemical engineering was found to behighest-paying degree for first employment of collegegraduates.Chemical engineering has been successively ranked in theTop 2 places in the Most Lucrative Degrees Survey by CNN Money inthe United States of America. In the UK, the Institution ofChemical Engineers 2006 Salary Survey reported an average salary ofapproximately £53,000, with a starting salary for a graduateaveraging £24,000. Chemical engineering is a male-dominated field:as of 2009, only 17.1% of professional chemical engineers arewomen. However, that trend is expected to shift as the number offemale students in the field continues to increase.it became clearthat unit operations alone was insufficient in developing chemicalreactors. While the predominance of unit operations in chemicalengineering courses in Britain and the United States continueduntil the 1960s, transport phenomena started to experience greaterfocus. Along with other novel concepts, such process systemsengineering (PSE), a "second paradigm" was defined. Transportphenomena gave an analytical approach to chemical engineering whilePSE focused on its synthetic elements, such as control system andprocess design. Developments in chemical engineering before andafter World War II were mainly incited by the petrochemicalindustry, however, advances in other fields were made as well.Advancements in biochemical engineering in the 1940s, for example,found application in the pharmaceutical industry, and allowed forthe mass production of various antibiotics, including penicillinand streptomycin. Meanwhile, progress in polymer science in the1950s paved way for the "age of plastics".Concerns regarding thesafety and environmental impact of large-scale chemicalmanufacturing facilities were also raised during this period.Silent Spring, published in 1962, alerted its readers to theharmful effects of DDT, a potent insecticide. The1974 Flixborough disaster in the United Kingdom resulted in 28deaths, as well as damage to a chemical plant and three nearbyvillages. The 1984 Bhopal disaster in Indiaresulted in almost 4,000 deaths. These incidents,along with other incidents, affected the reputation of the trade asindustrial safety and environmental protection were given morefocus. In response, the IChemE required safety to be part of everydegree course that it accredited after 1982. By the 1970s,legislation and monitoring agencies were instituted in variouscountries, such as France, Germany, and the United States.
Codeigniter Tutorial 8.9
CodeIgniter is an open source rapid development web applicationframework, for use in building dynamic web sites with PHP. Thefirst public version of CodeIgniter was released on February 28,2006, and the latest stable version 2.2.0 was released June 5,2014.CodeIgniter is loosely based on the popularModel-View-Controller development pattern. While controller classesare a necessary part of development under CodeIgniter, models andviews are optional.CodeIgniter is most often noted for its speedwhen compared to other PHP frameworks. In a critical take on PHPframeworks in general, PHP creator Rasmus Lerdorf spoke at frOSConin August 2008, noting that he liked CodeIgniter "because it isfaster, lighter and the least like a framework."CodeIgniter'ssource code is maintained at GitHub, and as of the preview version3.0-dev, is certified open source software licensed with the MITLicense. Versions of CodeIgniter prior to 3.0 are licensed under aproprietary Apache/BSD-style open source license.The decision toswitch to an OSL license sparked some community controversy,especially about the GPL incompatibility of the new license, towhich EllisLab has responded with a series of articles entitledSoftware License Awareness Week.On July 9, 2013, EllisLab announcedthat it is seeking a new owner for its CodeIgniter, stating lack ofinvolvement as a reason. On October 6, 2014, EllisLab announcedthat CodeIgniter will continue its development under thestewardship of the British Columbia Institute of Technology.
Civil Engineering Handbook 8.9
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline thatdeals with the design, construction, and maintenance of thephysical and naturally built environment, including works likeroads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings. Civil engineering isthe second-oldest engineering discipline after militaryengineering, and it is defined to distinguish non-militaryengineering from military engineering. It is traditionally brokeninto several sub-disciplines including architectural engineering,environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, geophysics,geodesy, control engineering, structural engineering, earthquakeengineering, transportation engineering, earth science, atmosphericsciences, forensic engineering, municipal or urban engineering,water resources engineering, materials engineering, offshoreengineering, aerospace engineering, quantity surveying, coastalengineering, surveying, and construction engineering. Civilengineering takes place in the public sector from municipal throughto national governments, and in the private sector from individualhomeowners through to international companiesCivil engineerstypically possess an academic degree in civil engineering. Thelength of study is three to five years, and the completed degree isdesignated as a bachelor of engineering, or a bachelor of science.The curriculum generally includes classes in physics, mathematics,project management, design and specific topics in civilengineering. After taking basic courses in most sub-disciplines ofcivil engineering, they move onto specialize in one or moresub-disciplines at advanced levels. While an undergraduate degree(BEng/BSc) normally provides successful students withindustry-accredited qualification, some academic institutions offerpost-graduate degrees (MEng/MSc), which allow students to furtherspecialize in their particular area of interest.Snapshot fromshake-table video testing of base-isolated (right) and regular(left) building modelsIn most countries, a bachelor's degree inengineering represents the first step towards professionalcertification, and a professional body certifies the degreeprogram. After completing a certified degree program, the engineermust satisfy a range of requirements (including work experience andexam requirements) before being certified. Once certified, theengineer is designated as a professional engineer (in the UnitedStates, Canada and South Africa), a chartered engineer (in mostCommonwealth countries), a chartered professional engineer (inAustralia and New Zealand), or a European engineer (in mostcountries of the European Union). There are internationalagreements between relevant professional bodies to allow engineersto practice across national borders.The benefits of certificationvary depending upon location. For example, in the United States andCanada, "only a licensed professional engineer may prepare, signand seal, and submit engineering plans and drawings to a publicauthority for approval, or seal engineering work for public andprivate clients." This requirement is enforced under provincial lawsuch as the Engineers Act in Quebec.No such legislation has beenenacted in other countries including the United Kingdom. InAustralia, state licensing of engineers is limited to the state ofQueensland. Almost all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethicswhich all members must abide by.Engineers must obey contract law intheir contractual relationships with other parties. In cases wherean engineer's work fails, he may be subject to the law of tort ofnegligence, and in extreme cases, criminal charges. An engineer'swork must also comply with numerous other rules and regulationssuch as building codes and environmental law.
Chemical Formula Dictionary 8.9
Chemistry, the science that deals with the properties, composition,and structure of substances (defined as elements and compounds),the transformations they undergo, and the energy that is releasedor absorbed during these processes. Every substance, whethernaturally occurring or artificially produced, consists of one ormore of the hundred-odd species of atoms that have been identifiedas elements. Although these atoms, in turn, are composed of moreelementary particles, they are the basic building blocks ofchemical substances; there is no quantity of oxygen, mercury, orgold, for example, smaller than an atom of that substance.Chemistry, therefore, is concerned not with the subatomic domainbut with the properties of atoms and the laws governing theircombinations and how the knowledge of these properties can be usedto achieve specific purposes.Chemistry is the study of matter andits interactions with other matter. Anything made of matter istherefore a chemical. Any liquid, solid, gas. Any pure substance;any mixture. Water is a chemical. Technically speaking, so is achunk of your computer. A chemical can often be broken down intocomponents, as is true with your computer. However, peoplegenerally use the term 'chemical' to refer to a substance thatappears homogeneous or the same throughout its structure.
Anatomy And Physiology 8.9
Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of thestructure of animals and their parts; it is also referred to aszootomy to separate it from human anatomy. In some of its facets,anatomy is related to embryology and comparative anatomy, whichitself is closely related to evolutionary biology and phylogeny.Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences ofmedicine.The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic andmicroscopic anatomy. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is theexamination of an animal’s body parts using unaided eyesight. Grossanatomy also includes the branch of superficial anatomy.Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in thestudy of the tissues of various structures, known as histology andalso in the study of cells.The history of anatomy is characterizedby a progressive understanding of the functions of the organs andstructures of the human body. Methods have also improveddramatically, advancing from the examination of animals bydissection of carcasses and cadavers (corpses) to 20th centurymedical imaging techniques including X-ray, ultrasound, andmagnetic resonance imaging.anatomy is the scientific study of thestructure of organisms including their systems, organs and tissues.It includes the appearance and position of the various parts, thematerials from which they are composed, their locations and theirrelationships with other parts. Anatomy is quite distinct fromphysiology and biochemistry, which deal respectively with thefunctions of those parts and the chemical processes involved. Forexample, an anatomist is concerned with the shape, size, position,structure, blood supply and innervation of an organ such as theliver; while a physiologist is interested in the production ofbile, the role of the liver in nutrition and the regulation ofbodily functions.The discipline of anatomy can be subdividedinto a number of branches including gross or macroscopic anatomyand microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy is the study ofstructures large enough to be seen with the naked eye, and alsoincludes superficial anatomy or surface anatomy, the study by sightof the external body features. Microscopic anatomy is the study ofstructures on a microscopic scale, including histology (the studyof tissues), and embryology (the study of an organism in itsimmature condition).Anatomy can be studied using both invasiveand non-invasive methods with the goal of obtaining informationabout the structure and organization of organs and systems. Methodsused include dissection, in which a body is opened and its organsstudied, and endoscopy, in which a video camera-equipped instrumentis inserted through a small incision in the body wall and used toexplore the internal organs and other structures. Angiography usingX-rays or magnetic resonance angiography are methods to visualizeblood vessels.The term "anatomy" is commonly taken to refer tohuman anatomy. However, substantially the same structures andtissues are found throughout the rest of the animal kingdom and theterm also includes the anatomy of other animals. The term zootomyis also sometimes used to specifically refer to animals. Thestructure and tissues of plants are of a dissimilar nature and theyare studied in plant anatomy.Epithelial tissue is composed ofclosely packed cells, bound to each other by cell adhesionmolecules, with little intercellular space. Epithelial cells can besquamous (flat), cuboidal or columnar and rest on a basal lamina,the upper layer of the basement membrane, the lower layer is thereticular lamina lying next to the connective tissue in theextracellular matrix secreted by the epithelial cells.
Biology Reference 8.9
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life andliving organisms, including their structure, function, growth,evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Modern biology is a vastand eclectic field, composed of many branches and subdisciplines.However, despite the broad scope of biology, there are certaingeneral and unifying concepts within it that govern all study andresearch, consolidating it into single, coherent fields. Ingeneral, biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life,genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the enginethat propels the synthesis and creation of new species. It is alsounderstood today that all organisms survive by consuming andtransforming energy and by regulating their internal environment tomaintain a stable and vital condition.Subdisciplines of biology aredefined by the scale at which organisms are studied, the kinds oforganisms studied, and the methods used to study them: Biochemistryexamines the rudimentary chemistry of life; molecular biologystudies the complex interactions among biological molecules; botanystudies the biology of plants; cellular biology examines the basicbuilding-block of all life, the cell; physiology examines thephysical and chemical functions of tissues, organs, and organsystems of an organism; evolutionary biology examines the processesthat produced the diversity of life; and ecology examines howorganisms interact in their environmentCell theory states that thecell is the fundamental unit of life, and that all living thingsare composed of one or more cells or the secreted products of thosecells (e.g. shells, hairs and nails etc.). All cells arise fromother cells through cell division. In multicellular organisms,every cell in the organism's body derives ultimately from a singlecell in a fertilized egg. The cell is also considered to be thebasic unit in many pathological processes. In addition, thephenomenon of energy flow occurs in cells in processes that arepart of the function known as metabolism. Finally, cells containhereditary information (DNA), which is passed from cell to cellduring cell division.Genes are the primary units of inheritance inall organisms. A gene is a unit of heredity and corresponds to aregion of DNA that influences the form or function of an organismin specific ways. All organisms, from bacteria to animals, sharethe same basic machinery that copies and translates DNA intoproteins. Cells transcribe a DNA gene into an RNA version of thegene, and a ribosome then translates the RNA into a protein, asequence of amino acids. The translation code from RNA codon toamino acid is the same for most organisms, but slightly differentfor some. For example, a sequence of DNA that codes for insulin inhumans also codes for insulin when inserted into other organisms,such as plants.DNA usually occurs as linear chromosomes ineukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. A chromosomeis an organized structure consisting of DNA and histones. The setof chromosomes in a cell and any other hereditary information foundin the mitochondria, chloroplasts, or other locations iscollectively known as its genome. In eukaryotes, genomic DNA islocated in the cell nucleus, along with small amounts inmitochondria and chloroplasts. In prokaryotes, the DNA is heldwithin an irregularly shaped body in the cytoplasm called thenucleoid. The genetic information in a genome is held withingenes, and the complete assemblage of this information in anorganism is called its genotypeThe survival of a living organismdepends on the continuous input of energy. Chemical reactions thatare responsible for its structure and function are tuned to extractenergy from substances that act as its food and transform them tohelp form new cells and sustain them.
Diccionario Anatomica 8.9
La anatomía humana utilizando su propio glosario , que se toma ensu mayoría de la región de América con un significado muyespecífico . Término anatómico es el resultado de un acuerdo deexpertos anatomía mundial conocido como anatomica terminologia .Todos los términos anatómicos en el mundo de la medicina debenbasarse en los resultados del acuerdo , no debe ser arbitraria. Latraducción a otros idiomas se realiza a través de un acuerdo deanatomistas en sus respectivos países . Lamentablemente, hastaahora no ha habido ninguna estandarización anatómica traducciónterminologia en Indonesia, por lo que a menudo es confuso.Hayalgunos términos comunes aparece anatomía recurrente. Es importanteque usted entienda algunos de los términos comunes , que incluyenlo siguiente:Posición del cuerpo :Posición anatómica ( de pie): Enesta posición , el cuerpo recto en posición de pie con los ojostambién mirar de frente . Palmeras que se cierne sobre los ladosdel cuerpo y mirando hacia adelante. Las plantas de los piestambién están apuntando hacia delante y las piernas perfectamenterecta . Posición anatómica es muy importante porque la relacióndescrita por supuesto de todas las estructuras están en la posiciónanatómica.Posición supina ( decúbito supino ) : En esta posición elcuerpo tendido boca arriba. Todas las demás posiciones similares ala posición anatómica con la única diferencia de estar en el lugarde horizontal el plano vertical.Decúbito prono (boca abajo ) : Enesta posición , la espalda hacia arriba. El cuerpo se encuentra enun plano horizontal con la cara hacia abajo.Posición ginecológica :En esta posición el cuerpo tendido sobre su espalda , el muslo y lapantorrilla levantó recta vertical, horizontal. Las manos son porlo general se extienden como alas. Las piernas atadas encondiciones de apoyar las rodillas y las caderas están dobladas.Esta es la posición en muchos procedimientos obstétricos .Campo decuerpo:Frontal Campo / coronal : plano vertical perpendicular alplano medio . Este campo se forma a partir de la línea que conectael oído a la otra oreja de la parte superior de la cabeza y luegodividiendo todo el cuerpo a lo largo de esas líneas.La mediana deavión / sagital media : plano que divide el cuerpo en partesiguales a derecha e izquierda .Plano sagital / paramediana : campoparalelo al plano medio , pero divide el cuerpo en derecha eizquierda no son los mismos.Campo transversal: cuerpo planohorizontal, perpendicular al plano frontal y la mediana .CampoObliqua : campos distintos de los descritosanteriormente.Relación:Anterior significa hacia el frente.Posterior significa hacia la parte trasera .Superior significa ala cabeza.Medios inferior al pie.Medial / Medial significa hacia elplano medio ( sección media medekati ) .Lateral / lateral significalejos del plano medio (lejos del centro del cuerpo ) .Miembros dela Junta :Proximal significa cerca del cuerpoDistal significa lejosdel cuerpoPreaksial muestra el lado radial o tibial de lasextremidades.Cubital Postaksial o demostración lateral del peronéen las extremidades.Medios de superficie flexor de la extremidadanterior de la superficie posterior de las extremidades superiorese inferiores.Superficie extensora de las extremidades posterioressuperiores e cara anterior de las extremidades inferiores mediaSecciones musculares:Origio ( origen ) : un final relativamentefijo del músculo durante el movimiento natural.Insersio (inserción) : inclinar muscle car relativa durante el movimientonatural.Vientre: parte media carnosa del músculo, que es insersio.Los tendones : parte fibrosa y la no contracción del músculo, quees origio .Aponeurosis : tendón plano derivada de tejido conectivoalrededor del músculo .Human anatomy using its own glossary, whichis taken mostly from the Latin with a very specific meaning.Anatomical term is the result of a global agreement anatomy expertsknown as anatomical terminology. All anatomical terms in the worldof medicine should be based on the results of the agreement, mustnot be arbitrary. Translation into other languages is donethrough an agreement anatomists in their respective countries.Unfortunately, until now there has been no anatomicalstandardization terminology translation Indonesia, which is oftenconfusing.Anatomy appellant appears there are some common terms. Itis important that you understand some of the common terms, whichinclude the following:Body position:Anatomical position (standing):In this position, body straight while standing with eyes also lookahead. Palms hanging over the sides of the body and lookingforward. The soles are also pointing forward and legs perfectlystraight. Anatomical position is very important because therelationship described course of all structures are in theanatomical position.Supine position (supine): In this position thebody lying face up. Similar to all other anatomical position withthe only difference being in the vertical rather than a horizontalplane positions.Prone (face down): In this position, the back up.The body is in a horizontal plane with the face down.Gynecologicalposition: In this position the body lying on his back, thigh andcalf raised vertical, horizontal line. Hands are usually spreadlike wings. Legs tied in a position to support the knees and hipsare bent. This is the position in many obstetrical procedures.Bodyfield:Front Country / coronal: vertical plane perpendicular to theplane. This field is formed from the line that connects the ear tothe other ear at the top of the head and then dividing the wholebody along those lines.The median plane / midsagittal of: planethat divides the body into equal right and left parts.Sagittalplane / paramedian: field parallel to the median plane, but dividesthe body into right and left are not the same.Cross Country: bodyhorizontal plane perpendicular to the frontal plane and themedian.Campo Obliqua: fields other than those describedabove.Relationship:This means forward.Back means toward therear.Superior means to the head.Means the foot bottom.Medial /Medial means toward the median plane (middle sectionmedekati).Lateral / lateral means away from the median plane (awayfrom the center of the body).Members of the Board:Proximal meanscloser to the bodyDistal means away from the bodyPreaksial showsthe radial or tibial side of the limbs.Postaksial ulnar or fibularside show in the extremities.Means flexor surface of the front endof the rear surface of the upper and lower extremities.Extensorsurfaces of the upper anterior and posterior extremities of themiddle lower extremitiesMuscle sections:Origio (source): arelatively fixed end of the muscle during natural movement.Insersio(inset): tilt relative muscle car during natural movement.Belly:fleshy middle of the muscle, which is insersio.Tendons: fibrouspart and no muscle contraction, which is Origio.Aponeurosis: flattendon derived from connective tissue around the muscle.
Animals Disease List 8.9
Actinomycosis in animalsAlcelaphine herpesvirus 2AleutianDiseaseAlopecia in animalsAnthroponotic diseaseBalanoposthitisBaldsea urchin diseaseBerserk llama syndromeBesnoitiosisBiliaryfeverBladder stone (animal)Blain (animaldisease)BrucellosisCamelpoxChlamydophila abortusChronic wastingdiseaseChrysosporiumCoccidiaCopper deficiencyDDislocation of hip inanimalsEbola virus diseaseEbolavirusElephant endotheliotropicherpesvirusEndometrosisEpilepsy in animalsEpizooticFasciolagiganticaFasciola hepaticaFasciolosisFilariasisFcont.FiloviridaeFloppy trunk syndromeFoot-and-mouthdiseaseFusariumHalofolliculina corallasiaHead pressingHoose(disease)Hot spot (veterinary medicine)Impaction(animals)ImposexInfectious necrotic hepatitisInfluenzaListeriosisin animalsLloviu cuevavirusLymphocytic choriomeningitisLymphoma inanimalsMalignant edemaMammary tumorMarburg marburgvirusMarburgvirus diseaseMarburgvirusMetritisMink enteritisvirusMononegaviralesMyopia in animalsNeonatalisoerythrolysisPachyostosisPanzooticPhotosensitivity inanimalsPneumonia (non-human)Quarantine tankQuokkapox virusRRavnvirusRenibacterium salmoninarumReston virusSchistosomanasaleScurvySea star wasting diseaseSevere combinedimmunodeficiency (non-human)Skeletal eroding bandStickymouseSubvalvular aortic stenosis (non-human)Sudan ebolavirusSudanvirusSurraSylvaticTaï Forest ebolavirusTaï Forest virusToxascarisleoninaTransmissible mink encephalopathyTyzzer's diseaseVeterinaryvirologyWhite pox diseaseWildlife diseaseWobbly hedgehogsyndromeZaire ebolavirusZoonosisZoophilia and health
Civil Engineering Reference 8.9
Civil engineering is arguably the oldest engineering discipline. Itdeals with the built environment and can be dated to the first timesomeone placed a roof over his or her head or laid a tree trunkacross a river to make it easier to get across.The builtenvironment encompasses much of what defines modern civilization.Buildings and bridges are often the first constructions that cometo mind, as they are the most conspicuous creations of structuralengineering, one of civil engineering's major sub-disciplines.Roads, railroads, subway systems, and airports are designed bytransportation engineers, another category of civil engineering.And then there are the less visible creations of civil engineers.Every time you open a water faucet, you expect water to come out,without thinking that civil engineers made it possible. New YorkCity has one of the world’s most impressive water supply systems,receiving billions of gallons of high-quality water from theCatskills over one hundred miles away. Similarly, not many peopleseem to worry about what happens to the water after it has servedits purposes. The old civil engineering discipline of sanitaryengineering has evolved into modern environmental engineering ofsuch significance that most academic departments have changed theirnames to civil and environmental engineering.These few examplesillustrate that civil engineers do a lot more than design buildingsand bridges. They can be found in the aerospace industry, designingjetliners and space stations; in the automotive industry,perfecting the load-carrying capacity of a chassis and improvingthe crashworthiness of bumpers and doors; and they can be found inthe ship building industry, the power industry, and many otherindustries wherever constructed facilities are involved. And theyplan and oversee the construction of these facilities asconstruction managers.Civil engineering is an exciting professionbecause at the end of the day you can see the results of your work,whether this is a completed bridge, a high-rise building, a subwaystation, or a hydroelectric dam.Please look at the Web pages of ourindividual faculty members to learn more about their specialinterests as examples of what civil engineering and engineeringmechanics is and can be about.Civil engineering is a professionalengineering discipline that deals with the design, construction,and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment,including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings.Civil engineering is the second-oldest engineering discipline aftermilitary engineering, and it is defined to distinguish non-militaryengineering from military engineering. It is traditionally brokeninto several sub-disciplines including architectural engineering,environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, geophysics,geodesy, control engineering, structural engineering, earthquakeengineering, transportation engineering, earth science, atmosphericsciences, forensic engineering, municipal or urban engineering,water resources engineering, materials engineering, offshoreengineering, aerospace engineering, quantity surveying, coastalengineering, surveying, and construction engineering. Civilengineering takes place in the public sector from municipal throughto national governments, and in the private sector from individualhomeowners through to international companies
Biologia Molecular 8.9
La Biología molecular es la disciplina científica que tiene comoobjetivo el estudio de los procesos que se desarrollan en los seresvivos desde un punto de vista molecular.En su sentido moderno, labiología molecular pretende explicar los fenómenos de la vida apartir de sus propiedades macromoleculares. Dos macromoléculas enparticular son su objeto de estudio:1) Los ácidos nucleicos, entrelos cuales el más famoso es el ácido desoxirribonucleico (o ADN),el componente de genes.2) Las proteínas, que son los agentesactivos de los organismos vivos.Dentro del Proyecto Genoma Humanopuede encontrarse la siguiente definición sobre la BiologíaMolecular: El estudio de la estructura, función y composición delas moléculas biológicamente importantes.Esta área está relacionadacon otros campos de la Biología y la Química, particularmenteIngeniería genética y Bioquímica. La biología molecular concierneprincipalmente al entendimiento de las interacciones de losdiferentes sistemas de la célula, lo que incluye muchísimasrelaciones, entre ellas las del ADN con el ARN, la síntesis deproteínas, el metabolismo, y el cómo todas esas interacciones sonreguladas para conseguir un correcto funcionamiento de la célula.Ladiferencia entre la química orgánica y la biología molecular oquímica biológica es que en la química biológica las moléculas deADN tienen una historia y, por ende, en su estructura nos hablan desu historia, del pasado en el que se han constituido, mientras queuna molécula orgánica, creada hoy, es sólo testigo de su presente,sin pasado y sin evolución históricaAl estudiar el comportamientobiológico de las moléculas que componen las células vivas, laBiología molecular roza otras ciencias que abordan temas similares:así, por ejemplo, juntamente con la Genética se interesa por laestructura y funcionamiento de los genes y por la regulación(inducción y represión) de la síntesis intracelular de enzimas y deotras proteínas. Con la Citología, se ocupa de la estructura de loscorpúsculos subcelulares (núcleo, nucléolo, mitocondrias,ribosomas, lisosomas, etc.) y sus funciones dentro de la célula.Con la Bioquímica estudia la composición y cinética de las enzimas,interesándose por los tipos de catálisis enzimática, activaciones,inhibiciones competitivas o alostéricas, etc. También colabora conla Filogenética al estudiar la composición detallada dedeterminadas moléculas en las distintas especies de seres vivos,aportando valiosos datos para el conocimiento de la evolución.Sinembargo, difiere de todas estas ciencias enumeradas tanto en losobjetivos concretos como en los métodos utilizados para lograrlos.Así como la Bioquímica investiga detalladamente los ciclosmetabólicos y la integración y desintegración de las moléculas quecomponen los seres vivos, la Biología molecular pretende fijarsecon preferencia en el comportamiento biológico de lasmacromoléculas (ADN, ARN, enzimas, hormonas, etc.) dentro de lacélula y explicar las funciones biológicas del ser vivo por estaspropiedades a nivel molecular
Biotechnology Example 8.9
Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to developor make useful products, or "any technological application thatuses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof,to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UNConvention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2). Depending on the toolsand applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields ofbioengineering and biomedical engineering.For thousands of years,humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production,and medicine.The term itself is largely believed to have beencoined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Károly Ereky. In the late 20thand early 21st century, biotechnology has expanded to include newand diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant genetechnologies, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceuticaltherapies and diagnostic testsThe wide concept of "biotech" or"biotechnology" encompasses a wide range of procedures formodifying living organisms according to human purposes, going backto domestication of animals, cultivation of plants, and"improvements" to these through breeding programs that employartificial selection and hybridization. Modern usage also includesgenetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culturetechnologies. The American Chemical Society defines biotechnologyas the application of biological organisms, systems, or processesby various industries to learning about the science of life and theimprovement of the value of materials and organisms such aspharmaceuticals, crops, and livestock. Biotechnology also writeson the pure biological sciences (animal cell culture, biochemistry,cell biology, embryology, genetics, microbiology, and molecularbiology). In many instances, it is also dependent on knowledge andmethods from outside the sphere of biologyincluding:bioinformatics, a new brand of computer sciencebioprocessengineeringbioroboticschemical engineeringConversely, modernbiological sciences (including even concepts such as molecularecology) are intimately entwined and heavily dependent on themethods developed through biotechnology and what is commonlythought of as the life sciences industry. Biotechnology is theresearch and development in the laboratory using bioinformatics forexploration, extraction, exploitation and production from anyliving organisms and any source of biomass by means of biochemicalengineering where high value-added products could be planned(reproduced by biosynthesis, for example), forecasted, formulated,developed, manufactured and marketed for the purpose of sustainableoperations (for the return from bottomless initial investment on R& D) and gaining durable patents rights (for exclusives rightsfor sales, and prior to this to receive national and internationalapproval from the results on animal experiment and humanexperiment, especially on the pharmaceutical branch ofbiotechnology to prevent any undetected side-effects or safetyconcerns by using the products).By contrast,bioengineering is generally thought of as a related field that moreheavily emphasizes higher systems approaches (not necessarily thealtering or using of biological materials directly) for interfacingwith and utilizing living things. Bioengineering is the applicationof the principles of engineering and natural sciences to tissues,cells and molecules. This can be considered as the use of knowledgefrom working with and manipulating biology to achieve a result thatcan improve functions in plants and animals. Relatedly,biomedical engineering is an overlapping field that often drawsupon and applies biotechnology (by various definitions), especiallyin certain sub-fields of biomedical and/or chemical engineeringsuch as tissue engineering, biopharmaceutical engineering, andgenetic engineering.
Dental Guide 8.9
The word dental is used for things pertaining to teeth and couldrefer to:Dentistry, a medical professionDental AuxiliaryDentalhygienist, a licensed practitionerDental technicianAny variety ofother dental professions, such as "Dental assistant", someone whoworks in a dentist's office, but may not be a licensed medicalworkerThe American Dental AssociationDental amalgamcontroversyDental braceDental cavitiesDental consonant(linguistics)Extraction (dental)Dental restorationDentalimplantsDental alveolusDental cariesDental damDental drillDentalemergencyDental fillingsDental flossDental flossDentalinsuranceDental implantDental KeyDental pellicleDental phobiaDentalplaqueDental porcelainDental restorationDental sealantDentalsurgery
Daily Yoga Exercise 8.9
Yoga (Aksara Dewanagari योग) dari bahasa Sanskerta (योग) berarti"penyatuan", yang bermakna "penyatuan dengan alam" atau "penyatuandengan Sang Pencipta". Yoga merupakan salah satu dari enam ajarandalam filsafat Hindu, yang menitikberatkan pada aktivitas meditasiatau tapa di mana seseorang memusatkan seluruh pikiran untukmengontrol panca inderanya dan tubuhnya secarakeseluruhan.Masyarakat global umumnya mengenal Yoga sebagaiaktivitas latihan utamanya asana (postur) bagian dari Hatta Yoga.Yoga juga digunakan sebagai salah satu pengobatan alternatif,biasanya hal ini dilakukan dengan latihan pernapasan, olah tubuhdan meditasi, yang telah dikenal dan dipraktekkan selama lebih dari5000 tahun.Orang yang melakukan tapa yoga disebut yogis, yogin bagipraktisi pria dan yogini bagi praktisi wanita.Sastra Hindu yangmemuat ajaran Yoga, diantaranya adalah Upaishad, Bhagavad Gita,Yogasutra, Hatta Yoga serta beberapa sastra lainnya.Klasifikasiajaran Yoga tertuang dalam Bhagavad Gita, diantaranya adalah KarmaYoga/Marga, Jnana Yoga/Marga, Bakti Yoga/Marga, RajaYoga/Marga.Dalam beberapa dekade belakangan ini, Yoga mulai dilirikoleh banyak kalangan untuk berbagai macam tujuan, kebugaran,relaksasi, termasuk menyembuhkan penyakit.Menyembuhkan penyakitsebenarnya hanya sebagian kecil dari manfaat Yoga. Pada dasarnyaYoga dapat dikatakan menyatukan tubuh, pikiran, mental (emosi), danspirit (jiwa). hal ini dimaksudkan supaya seluruh aspek manusiatersebut dapat bekerja secara seimbang. Pada tahap selanjutnya Yogajustru akan membawa kita untuk melampaui batasan – batasan kondisidengan berbagai macam bentuknya yang membuat kita mengalamiketergantungan, bahkan pada keseimbangan sekalipun.Yoga ibaratsamudra dengan kedalaman yang tak terbatas. Yoga adalah carapandang holistic, keseluruhan, totalitas, dengan pengertian “Sebuahkesempurnaan yang kita keluarkan dari kesempurnaan, tetap akanmenjadi sempurna”. Inilah konsep dasar Yoga “Dari kesempurnaanuntuk mencapai kesempurnaan”.Maharsi Patanjali mengatakan dalamYoga Sutra, “Yoga adalah jalan untuk mencapai ketenangan pikiranhingga diam”.“Bagai bayangan bulan dalam air, demikianlah Tuhanmenampakkan diri – Nya bagi para pelaku Yoga”. Karena itulah parapelaku Yoga membuat permukaan air (pikiran) menjadi tenang.SENISPIRITUALYoga adalah sebuah seni, namun bukan seni biasa. Yogaadalah seni spiritual, dimana yang dikaji bukan semata – mata fisiksaja, namun juga jiwa. Diatas semua itu, yang utama untuk lebihmemahami seni Yoga adalah tindakan atau praktek. Yoga memiliki duadisiplin praktek, yaitu gerak dan diam.Disiplin gerak berfungsiuntuk menguatkan fisik, mengembalikan kelenturan otot dan tubuh,serta mengontrol fungsi syaraf dan kelenjar. Disiplin gerak inibanyak membantu keseimbangan energi dan kenyamanan tubuh untukkehidupan sehari – hari, bahkan penting untuk menormalkanregenerasi sel tubuh.YogaDengan disiplin diam, Yoga memberikanrelaksasi, ketenangan, meningkatkan rasa percaya diri danmeningkatkan kemampuan intuisi. Semuanya dapat dicapai denganmeditasi.Manfaat berlatih Yoga yang biasanya diinginkan olehpraktisi pemula dan saat ini adalah tubuh sehat, bugar. Padahalsesungguhnya, tujuan Yoga tradisional adalah kebahagiaan.Kebahagiaan tertinggi yang hendak dicapai adalah mencapai kesadarantertinggi atau yang lebih dikenal dengan pencerahan. Jadi, Yogamerupakan latihan fisik yang dipenuhi oleh spiritualitas. Ini lebihdari sekedar memiliki tubuh yang sehat, karena kesehatan tubuhhanyalah salah satu pilar dari kebahagiaan tersebut.Praktek Yogaakan sempurna bila Anda memperhatikan beberapa panduan danmemperoleh bimbingan dari seorang Guru yang kompeten. Shrii SwamiKhrishananda – Sekretaris Jenderal The Divine Life Society,Rishikesh-India, mengatakan : “Yoga tidak dapat dipelajari tanpaadanya seorang guru”.(STS)
Biotechnology List 8.9
Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to developor make useful products, or "any technological application thatuses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof,to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UNConvention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2). Depending on the toolsand applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields ofbioengineering and biomedical engineering.For thousands of years,humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production,and medicine. The term itself is largely believed to have beencoined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Károly Ereky. In the late 20thand early 21st century, biotechnology has expanded to include newand diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant genetechnologies, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceuticaltherapies and diagnostic tests.Biotechnology has applications infour major industrial areas, including health care (medical), cropproduction and agriculture, non food (industrial) uses of crops andother products (e.g. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil,biofuels), and environmental uses.For example, one application ofbiotechnology is the directed use of organisms for the manufactureof organic products (examples include beer and milk products).Another example is using naturally present bacteria by the miningindustry in bioleaching. Biotechnology is also used to recycle,treat waste, cleanup sites contaminated by industrial activities(bioremediation), and also to produce biological weapons.A seriesof derived terms have been coined to identify several branches ofbiotechnology; for example:Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinaryfield which addresses biological problems using computationaltechniques, and makes the rapid organization as well as analysis ofbiological data possible. The field may also be referred to ascomputational biology, and can be defined as, "conceptualizingbiology in terms of molecules and then applying informaticstechniques to understand and organize the information associatedwith these molecules, on a large scale." Bioinformatics plays akey role in various areas, such as functional genomics, structuralgenomics, and proteomics, and forms a key component in thebiotechnology and pharmaceutical sector.Blue biotechnology is aterm that has been used to describe the marine and aquaticapplications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare.Greenbiotechnology is biotechnology applied to agricultural processes.An example would be the selection and domestication of plants viamicropropagation. Another example is the designing of transgenicplants to grow under specific environments in the presence (orabsence) of chemicals. One hope is that green biotechnology mightproduce more environmentally friendly solutions than traditionalindustrial agriculture. An example of this is the engineering of aplant to express a pesticide, thereby ending the need of externalapplication of pesticides. An example of this would be Bt corn.Whether or not green biotechnology products such as this areultimately more environmentally friendly is a topic of considerabledebate.Red biotechnology is applied to medical processes. Someexamples are the designing of organisms to produce antibiotics, andthe engineering of genetic cures through genetic manipulation.Whitebiotechnology, also known as industrial biotechnology, isbiotechnology applied to industrial processes. An example is thedesigning of an organism to produce a useful chemical. Anotherexample is the using of enzymes as industrial catalysts to eitherproduce valuable chemicals or destroy hazardous/pollutingchemicals. White biotechnology tends to consume less in resourcesthan traditional processes used to produce industrial goods
Aptitude Test Online 8.9
An aptitude is a component of a competency to do a certain kind ofwork at a cartain level, which can also be considered "talent".Aptitudes may be physical or mental. Aptitude is not developedknowledge, understanding, learned or acquired abilities (skills) orattitude. The innate nature of aptitude is in contrast toachievement, which represents knowledge or ability that is gainedthrough learningAptitude and intelligence quotient are related, andin some ways opposite views of human mental ability. Whereasintelligence quotient sees intelligence as being a singlemeasurable characteristic affecting all mental ability, aptituderefers to one of many different characteristics which can beindependent of each other, such as aptitude for military flight,air traffic control, or computer programming. This is more similarto the theory of multiple intelligences.Concerning a singlemeasurable characteristic affecting all mental ability, analysis ofany group of intelligence test scores will nearly always show themto be highly correlated. The U.S. Department of Labor's GeneralLearning Ability, for instance, is determined by combining Verbal,Numerical and Spatial aptitude subtests. In a given person some arelow and others high. In the context of an aptitude test the "high"and "low" scores are usually not far apart, because all abilitytest scores tend to be correlated. Aptitude is better appliedintra-individually to determine what tasks a given individual ismore skilled at performing. Inter-individual aptitude differencesare typically not very significant due to IQ differences. Of coursethis assumes individuals have not already been pre-screened foraptitude through some other process such as SAT scores, GRE scores,or finishing medical school.Tests that assess learned skills orknowledge are frequently called achievement tests. However, certaintests can assess both types of constructs. An example that leansboth ways is the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery(ASVAB), which is given to recruits entering the armed forces ofthe United States. Another is the SAT, which is designed as a testof aptitude for college in the United States, but has achievementelements. For example, it tests mathematical reasoning, whichdepends both on innate mathematical ability and education receivedin mathematics.Aptitude tests can typically be grouped according tothe type of cognitive ability they measure:Fluid intelligence: theability to think and reason abstractly, effectively solve problemsand think strategically. It’s more commonly known as ‘streetsmarts’ or the ability to ‘quickly think on your feet’. An exampleof what employers can learn from your fluid intelligence is yoursuitability for the role for which you are applyingCrystallisedintelligence: the ability to learn from past experiences and toapply this learning to work-related situations. Work situationsthat require crystallised intelligence include producing andanalysing written reports, comprehending work instructions, usingnumbers as a tool to make effective decisions, etca naturalabilitySkillGeneral Learning AbilitySpatial visualization ability
Automotive Reference 8.9
Automotive engineering is a branch of engineering that studies howto design, create and develop the means of land transportation areusing the machine, especially motorcycles, cars, buses and trucks.Automotive engineering combines elements of knowledge of mechanics,electricity, electronics, safety and the environment as well asmathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and management.Thebranches of the automotive engineering include:Planning (product ordesign)Development (development)Production(manufacturing)Maintenance (maintenance)In Indonesia currentlyhighly developed branch is generally about care and maintenance ofcars and motorcycles.In automotive engineering, control systemsexisting land transport equipment is a must. The system comprisesseveral main systems and dozens of subsystems. The system can begrouped:Engine (engine)Combustion engine (internal combustionengine).The fuel system (fuel system).Fuel tank.Fuelpump.Carburetor or fuel injection system.Ignition system (ignitionsystem).Air intake system in the combustion chamber (intakesystem).Combustion products exhaust system (exhaust system).Coolingsystem (cooling system).Lubrication system (lubricatingsystem).Wheel balance system (spooring balancing)Move power (powertrain).Transmission system (transmission system).Driving circuit(drive train).Transfer case (for 4-wheel drive)The driving end(final drive)Wheel (wheel)The steering system (steering system).Thesuspension system (suspension system).The brake system (brakesystem).Bodi.The electrical system (electrical system).The mainfields of technologyfieldBuilding and ConstructionCity and RegionalPlanning Techniques Acoustic Engineering Mechanical EngineeringSafety Engineering architecture building maintenance engineeringconstruction fire protection engineering Civil engineeringSanitation Engineering Technology householdstructurebiomedicalBiomechatronics Bioinformatics BiotechnologyPharmacology Nanomedicine Science Health Sciences Informatics nervechemical Medical Research Biomedical Engineering BiologicalEngineering Genetic Engineering Medical Technology NetworkEngineering Technology Reproductive Technology nerveenergyRenewableEnergy Storage Petroleum Engineering Nuclear Engineering EnergyNuclear TechnologyindustryGas industrial biotechnology industryMetallurgy Research Management Manufacturing techniques and thedevelopment of flexible manufacturing systems Biochemicalengineering Biosystems engineering Financial engineering industryMechanical Engineering Manufacturing Engineering Enterpriseengineering Mining Engineering Engineering processautomationInformation and CommunicationArtificial intelligenceComputer Science Mechanical Engineering radio frequency andcomputer engineering computer network ontology MechanicalEngineering Software Engineering broadcasting telecommunicationEngineering Engineering Technology website computing technologyinformation technology communication technology visual musicGraphic TechnologyenvironmentGreen building design of ecologicallysustainable design Renewable energy Science EngineeringEnvironmental engineering environment landscape clean coaltechnology clean technology Green nanotechnologymilitaryElectronicwarfare military communications military engineering stealthTechnology EngineerseducationDigital Technology educationalsoftware in educational ICT in education Impact of technology inthe education system of multimedia learning Virtual Campus VirtualEducationagricultureAquaculture fishery Sciences ChemistryEnvironmental food and agricultural buildings Nutrition FoodMicrobiology Food Engineering Agricultural Engineering TechnologyFood Technology freezing foodtransportationAerospace engineeringTraffic Engineering Mechanical Engineering Automotive Engineeringshipping space transportation technologyOther applied sciences
Diabetes Detection 8.9
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is agroup of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugarlevels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugarinclude frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acutecomplications include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotichyperosmolar coma. Serious long-term complications includecardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers anddamage to the eyes.Diabetes is due to either the pancreas notproducing enough insulin or the cells of the body not respondingproperly to the insulin produced. There are three main types ofdiabetes mellitus:Type 1 DM results from the body's failure toproduce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as"insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenilediabetes". The cause is unknown.Type 2 DM begins with insulinresistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulinproperly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may alsodevelop. This form was previously referred to as "noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onsetdiabetes". The primary cause is excessive body weight and notenough exercise.Gestational diabetes, is the third main form andoccurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetesdevelop a high blood glucose level.Prevention and treatmentinvolves a healthy diet, physical exercise, not using tobacco andbeing a normal body weight. Blood pressure control and proper footcare are also important for people with the disease. Type 1diabetes must be managed with insulin injections. Type 2 diabetesmay be treated with medications with or without insulin. Insulinand some oral medications can cause low blood sugar. Weight losssurgery in those with obesity is an effective measure in those withtype 2 DM. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth ofthe baby.Diabetes is a condition where the amount of glucose inyour blood is too high because the body cannot use it properly.This is because your pancreas doesn’t produce any insulin, or notenough insulin, to help glucose enter your body’s cells – or theinsulin that is produced does not work properly (known as insulinresistance).People (usually with type 1 diabetes) may alsoexperience episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis, a type of metabolicproblems characterized by nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, thesmell of acetone on the breath, deep breathing known as Kussmaulbreathing, and in severe cases a decreased level ofconsciousness.All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-termcomplications. These typically develop after many years (10–20),but may be the first symptom in those who have otherwise notreceived a diagnosis before that time.The primary microvascularcomplications of diabetes include damage to the eyes, kidneys, andnerves. Damage to the eyes, known as diabetic retinopathy, iscaused by damage to the blood vessels in the retina of the eye, andcan result in gradual vision loss and potentially blindness. Damageto the kidneys, known as diabetic nephropathy, can lead to tissuescarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronic kidneydisease, sometimes requiring dialysis or kidney transplant. Damageto the nerves of the body, known as diabetic neuropathy, is themost common complication of diabetes. The symptoms can includenumbness, tingling, pain, and altered pain sensation, which canlead to damage to the skin. Diabetes-related foot problems mayoccur, and can be difficult to treat, occasionally requiringamputation. Additionally, proximal diabetic neuropathy causespainful muscle wasting and weakness.There is a link betweencognitive deficit and diabetes. Compared to those without diabetes,those with the disease have a 1.2 to 1.5-fold greater rate ofdecline in cognitive function.
Dental Reference 8.9
A bridge is a fixed dental restoration (a fixed dental prosthesis)used to replace a missing tooth (or several teeth) by joining anartificial tooth permanently to adjacent teeth or dentalimplants.Types of bridges may vary, depending upon how they arefabricated and the way they anchor to the adjacent teeth.Conventionally, bridges are made using the indirect method ofrestoration. However, bridges can be fabricated directly in themouth using such materials as composite resin.A bridge isfabricated by reducing the teeth on either side of the missingtooth or teeth by a preparation pattern determined by the locationof the teeth and by the material from which the bridge isfabricated. In other words, the abutment teeth are reduced in sizeto accommodate the material to be used to restore the size andshape of the original teeth in a correct alignment and contact withthe opposing teeth. The dimensions of the bridge are defined byAnte's Law: "The root surface area of the abutment teeth has toequal or surpass that of the teeth being replaced with pontics".Thematerials used for the bridges include gold, porcelain fused tometal, or in the correct situation porcelain alone. The amount andtype of reduction done to the abutment teeth varies slightly withthe different materials used. The recipient of such a bridge mustbe careful to clean well under this prosthesis.When restoring anedentulous space with a fixed partial denture that will crown theteeth adjacent to the space and bridge the gap with a pontic, or"dummy tooth", the restoration is referred to as a bridge. Besidesall of the preceding information that concerns single-unit crowns,bridges possess a few additional considerations when it comes tocase selection and treatment planning, tooth preparation andrestoration fabrication.Prosthodontics Information about toothloss, bridges, restoration, crowns, dentures, sore mouth, tootherosion, bite collapse, TMJ and more.Implants Information aboutimplant procedures, natural tooth vs. implants, restoring fracturedtooth, implant site defect, milled bar overdenture, overdenture on2 implants, facial effects of tooth loss, ridge collapse andmore.PeriodonticsInformation about stages of periodontal disease,gingivitis, decay examples, tissue graft, frenectomy, crownlengthening, endo-perio lesion, scaling and root planing, furcationinvolvement and more.PreventiveInformation about oral hygiene,dental appointments, decay, sealants, nightguard andmore.EndodonticsInformation about procedures, abscesses, cracks,discoloration, endodontic surgery and more.Oral SurgeryInformationabout wisdom teeth, allograft, sinus elevation, facial surgery forcorrection and more.OrthodonticsInformation about estheticbenefits, malocclusions, manibular asymmetry, cross bites,treatments, manillary expansion, root extrusion, adult orthodonticsand more.EstheticsInformation about smile design principles,bleaching, veneers, crowns, porcelain inlays, failing restoration,post & core and more.
De Commercialisation 8.9
Commercialization is the process or cycle of introducing a newproduct or production method into the market. Many technologiesbegin in the laboratory and are not practical for commercial use intheir infancy. The development segment of the research anddevelopment spectrum requires time and money as systems areengineered that will make the product or method a paying commercialproposition. The launch of a new product is the final stage of newproduct development and the one where advertising, sales promotion,and other marketing efforts encourage commercial adoption of theproduct or method.Commercialization is often confused with sales,marketing, or business development. The commercialization processhas three key aspects:The funnel. It is essential to look at manyideas to get one or two products or businesses that can besustained long-term.It is a stage-wise process, and each stage hasits own key goals and milestones.It is vital to involve keystakeholders early, including customers.Proposed commercializationof a product can raise the following questions:When to launch.Factors such as potential cannibalization of the sales of avendor's other products, any requirement for further improvement ofthe proposed new product, or unfavorable market conditions mayoperate to delay a product launch.Where to launch. A potentialvendor can start marketing in a single location, in one or severalregions, or in a national or international market. Existingresources (in terms of capital, and operational capacities) and thedegree of managerial confidence may strongly influence the proposedlaunch-mode. Smaller vendors usually launch in attractive cities orregions, while larger companies enter a national market atonce.Global roll-outs generally remain theexclusive preserve of multinational conglomerates, since they havethe necessary size and make use of international distributionsystems (e.g., Unilever, Procter & Gamble). Othermultinationals may use the "lead-country" strategy: introducing thenew product in one country/region at a time (e.g.Colgate-Palmolive).Whom to target. Research andtest marketing may identify a primary consumer group. The idealprimary consumer group should consist of innovators, earlyadopters, heavy users and/or opinion leaders. This will ensureadoption by other buyers in the market during the product-growthperiod.How to launch. The prospective vendor should decide on anaction plan for introducing its proposed product - plan shaped byaddressing the questions above. The vendor has to develop a viablemarketing-mix and to structure a correspondingmarketing-budget.
Composition Document 8.9
A document is a written or drawn representation of thoughts.Originating from the Latin Documentum meaning lesson - the verbdoceō means to teach, and is pronounced similarly, in the past itwas usually used as a term for a written proof used as evidence. Inthe computer age, a document is usually used to describe aprimarily textual file, along with its structure and design, suchas fonts, colors and additional images.The modern term 'document'can no longer be defined by its transmission medium (such aspaper), following the existence of electronic documents. Adocumentation is not a written or drawn presentation ofthoughts.The formal term 'document' is defined in Library andinformation science and in documentation science, as a basictheoretical construct. It is everything which may be preserved orrepresented in order to serve as evidence for some purpose. Theclassical example provided by Suzanne Briet is an antelope: "Anantelope running wild on the plains of Africa should not beconsidered a document, she rules. But if it were to be captured,taken to a zoo and made an object of study, it has been made into adocument. It has become physical evidence being used by those whostudy it. Indeed, scholarly articles written about the antelope aresecondary documents, since the antelope itself is the primarydocument." (Quoted from Buckland, 1998 ). (This view has been seenas an early expression of what now is known as actor–networktheory).Documents are sometimes classified as secret, private orpublic. They may also be described as a draft or proof. When adocument is copied, the source is referred to as the original.Thereare accepted standards for specific applications in various fields,such as:Academic: thesis, paper, journalBusiness and accounting:Invoice, quote, RFP, Proposal, Contract, Packing slip, Manifest,Report detailed & summary, Spread sheet, MSDS, Waybill, Bill ofLading (BOL), Financial statement, Nondisclosure agreement (NDA) orsometimes referred to as; Mutual nondisclosure agreement (MNDA)Lawand politics: summons, certificate, license, gazetteGovernment andindustry: white paper, application forms, user-guideMedia andmarketing: brief, mock-up, scriptSuch standard documents can becreated based on a template.Something tangible that recordscommunication or facts with the help of marks, words, or symbols. Adocument serves to establish one or several facts, and can berelied upon as a proof thereof. Generally speaking, documentsfunction as evidence of intentions, whereas records function asevidence of activities.
Calorie Detection 8.9
The name calorie is used for two units of energy.The small calorieor gram calorie (symbol: cal) is the approximate amount of energyneeded to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degreeCelsius at a pressure of one atmosphere.The large calorie,kilogram calorie, dietary calorie, nutritionist's calorie,nutritional calorie, Calorie (capital C) or food calorie(symbol: Cal) is approximately the amount of energy needed to raisethe temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. Thelarge calorie is thus equal to 1000 small calories or onekilocalorie (symbol: kcal).Although these units are part of themetric system, they have been superseded in the InternationalSystem of Units by the joule. One small calorie is approximately4.2 joules (so one large calorie is about 4.2 kilojoules). Thefactor used to convert calories to joules at a given temperature isnumerically equivalent to the specific heat capacity of waterexpressed in joules per kelvin per gram or per kilogram. Theprecise conversion factor depends on the definition adopted.Inspite of its non-official status, the large calorie is still widelyused as a unit of food energy in the US, UK and some other Westerncountries. The small calorie is also often used for measurements inchemistry, although the amounts involved are typically recorded inkilocalories.In scientific contexts, the term calorie almost alwaysrefers to the small calorie. Even though it is not an SI unit, itis still used in chemistry. For example, the energy released in achemical reaction per mole of reagent is occasionally expressed inkilocalories per mole. Traditionally, this use was largely due tothe ease with which it could be calculated in laboratory reactions,especially in aqueous solution: a volume of reagent dissolved inwater forming a solution, with concentration expressed in moles perliter (1 liter weighing 1 kg), will induce a temperature change indegrees Celsius in the total volume of water solvent, and thesequantities (volume, molar concentration and temperature change) canthen be used to calculate energy per mole. It is also occasionallyused to specify energy quantities that relate to reaction energy,such as enthalpy of formation and the size of activationbarriers. However, its use is being superseded bythe SI unit, the joule, and multiples thereof such as thekilojoule.
Detox Information 8.9
Detox, short for detoxification, is the body's natural, ongoingprocess of neutralizing or eliminating toxins from the body. Toxinsare anything that can potentially harm body tissue, including wasteproducts that result from normal cell activity, such as ammonia,lactic acid and homocysteine, and human-made toxins that we areexposed to in our environment, food, and water. The liver,intestines, kidneys, lungs, skin, blood and lymphatic systems worktogether to ensure that toxins are transformed chemically to lessharmful compounds and excreted from the body.Although detox isprimarily thought of as a treatment for alcohol or drug dependence,the term is also used to refer to a program of diet, herbs, andother methods of removing environmental and dietary toxins from thebody.There are many different types of detox diets. Generally, adetox diet is a short-term diet that:Minimizes the amount ofchemicals ingested (for example, by eating organic food).Emphasizesfoods that provide the vitamins, nutrients, and antioxidants thatthe body needs for detoxification.Contains foods, such as highfiber foods and water, that draw out and eliminate toxins byincreasing the frequency of bowel movements andurination.Detoxification (detox for short) is the physiological ormedicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism,including, but not limited to, the human body, which is mainlycarried out by the liver. Additionally, it can refer to the periodof withdrawal during which an organism returns to homeostasis afterlong-term use of an addictive substance. In medicine,detoxification can be achieved by decontamination of poisoningestion and the use of antidotes as well as techniques such asdialysis and (in a limited number of cases) chelation therapy.Manyalternative medicine practitioners promote various types ofdetoxification such as detoxification diets. Scientists havedescribed these as a "waste of time and money". Sense AboutScience, a UK-based charitable trust determined that most suchdietary "detox" claims lack any supporting evidence.
Business Plan Success 8.9
A business, also known as an enterprise or a firm, is anorganization involved in the trade of goods, services, or both toconsumers. Businesses are prevalent in capitalist economies, wheremost of them are privately owned and provide goods and services tocustomers in exchange for other goods, services, or money.Businesses may also be not-for-profit or state-owned. A businessowned by multiple individuals may be referred to as a company.Theetymology of "business" stems from an early form of the adjective"busy", and implies socially valuable and rewarding work.[citationneeded] Business can refer to a particular organization or, moregenerally, to an entire market sector, e.g. "the music business".Compound forms such as agribusiness represent subsets of the word'sbroader meaning, which encompasses all activity by suppliers ofgoods and services.Forms of business ownership vary byjurisdiction, but several common forms exist:Sole proprietorship: Asole proprietorship, also known as a sole trader, is owned by oneperson and operates for their benefit. The owner may operate thebusiness alone or with other people. A sole proprietor hasunlimited liability for all obligations incurred by the business,whether from operating costs or judgements against the business.All assets of the business belong to a sole proprietor, including,for example, computer infrastructure, any inventory, manufacturingequipment and/or retail fixtures, as well as any real propertyowned by the business.Partnership: A partnership is a businessowned by two or more people. In most forms of partnerships, eachpartner has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by thebusiness. The three most prevalent types of for-profit partnershipsare general partnerships, limited partnerships, and limitedliability partnerships.Corporation: The owners of a corporationhave limited liability and the business has a separate legalpersonality from its owners. Corporations can be eithergovernment-owned or privately owned. They can organize either forprofit or as not-for-profit organizations. A privately owned,for-profit corporation is owned by its shareholders, who elect aboard of directors to direct the corporation and hire itsmanagerial staff. A privately owned, for-profit corporation can beeither privately held by a small group of individuals, or publiclyheld, with publicly traded shares listed on a stockexchange.Cooperative: Often referred to as a "co-op", a cooperativeis a limited liability business that can organize for-profit ornot-for-profit. A cooperative differs from a corporation in that ithas members, not shareholders, and they share decision-makingauthority. Cooperatives are typically classified as either consumercooperatives or worker cooperatives. Cooperatives are fundamentalto the ideology of economic democracy.The efficient and effectiveoperation of a business, and study of this subject, is calledmanagement. The major branches of management are financialmanagement, marketing management, human resource management,strategic management, production management, operations management,service management and information technology management.Owners mayadminister their businesses themselves, or employ managers to dothis for them. Whether they are owners or employees, managersadminister three primary components of the business' value: itsfinancial resources, capital or tangible resources, and humanresources. These resources are administered in at least fivefunctional areas: legal contracting, manufacturing or serviceproduction, marketing, accounting, financing, and human resources
Blagues Histoire 8.9
Sal gosseUn enfant rentre dans la cuisine, en pleurant. Sa mère luidemande : - Mais, qu'est-ce que tu as ? - C'est papa, il s'estdonné un coup de marteau sur un doigt. - il n'y a pas de quoipleurer, au contraire tu aurais dû rire. - C'est ce que j'aifait.Tu peux rêver...Un couple se balade sur les Champs Élyséequand tout à coup la femme s'arrête net devant une vitrine derobes. Elle est émerveillée par une robe et le fait comprendre àson mari ! Son mari lui demande : - Elle te plait ? - Oh oui, elleest magnifique ! - Si tu veux demain on revient et tu pourrasencore la regarder.AlcoolUn homme complètement saoul sort versquatre heures du matin d'une boîte de nuit et regagne péniblementle parking avec l'aide d'un de ses amis. Il ouvre la portière de savoiture, s'affale sur le siège et se met à hurler : - Ah lessalauds ! Ils m'ont tout volé... Les racailles ! Plus d'auto-radio,plus d'allume-cigares, plus de tableau de bord, plus de volant !Ils ont même pris le levier de vitesse. - Calme toi dit son copain,tu es assis à l'arrière...Un fou met de l'insecticide dans sonbain.Un autre fou lui demande:- M'enfin pourquoi mets-tu del'insecticide dans ton bain ?- Parce que depuis ce matin, j'ai desfourmis dans les jambes.Dracula soupe au restaurant :Je vousapporte le menu, monsieur, dit le serveur.Donnez moi plutôt laliste de vos clients.Voyons Nicolas, peux-tu me citer deux pronoms?- Qui ? Moi ?- Très bien, au suivant.Un inuit attend sa fiancéesur la banquise.Impatient, il sort un thermomètre de sa poche ets'exclame :- Si elle n'est pas la à moins vingt, c'est décidé, jem'en vais !Une petite fille rentre de l'école et demande à sonpère:- Tu connais la dernière ?- Non ?- Et bien c'est moi.Un hommemusclé entre dans un bar et annonce :- Un chocolat, sinon...Lebarman prend peur et lui sert donc son chocolat. L'homme musclé,satisfait, s'en va sans payer. Ce scénario se reproduit tous lesjours de la semaine.Au bout d'une semaine le barman décide deréagir et de ne pas faire durer cette situation intolérable.Lelendemain, l'homme musclé entre dans le bar et annonce :- Unchocolat, sinon...- Sinon quoi ?- Sinon un jus de tomate !Un hommevient de se faire renverser par un auto. Le conducteur sort del'auto et dit: - Vous êtes bien chanceux on est juste devant lebureau d'un médecin - Oui ! sauf que le médecin c'est moi ! nejeune femme qui cherche à se marier vient s'inscrire dans uneagence matrimonial. Elle précise à l'employée : -je suis bienennuyée ...Comme vous le voyez, je suis borgne. Ca sera sans doutedifficile de trouver un parti... - Mais non,ne vous inquiétez pas !L'employée tape la fiche descriptive : "Jeune femme ,deuxmerveilleux yeux bleus ,dont un en moins. Un homme marche dans larue lorsqu'il entend un cri derrière lui :"STOP! ARRÊTEZ SINON VOUSALLEZ PRENDRE UNE BRIQUE SUR LA TÊTE "Le gars s'arrête et au mêmemoment, une brique qui s'était détachée d'un immeuble lui passedevant le nez. Le gars se retourne personne...Un peu plus tard,alors qu'il veut traverser la rue, il entend encore :"STOP !ARRÊTEZ SINON VOUS ALLEZ VOUS FAIRE RENVERSER"Le gars s'arrête,laisse passer une voiture et comme il ne voit personne derrièrelui, il demande tout haut:- Mais qui êtes-vous?La voix répond:- Jesuis votre ange gardienEt le gars répond :- Ah ouais ?! Et oùétais-tu quand je me suis marié alors !
Calculer La grossesse 8.9
La plupart des mères ou père dans l'expectative quand on leurdemande à ces questions difficiles à répondre immédiatement, laplupart des conjectures sur la base des derniers jours ou moismenstruels.Bien connaître l'âge gestationnel, mais peut répondreaux questions ci-dessus peut également déterminer quels élémentsnutritifs sont nécessaires par la mère et le fœtus, ainsi que toutce qui est ou peut être fait par les femmes enceintes à l'âge de lagrossesse, et d'autres avantages.À cette fin, voici un moyen facilede calculer l'âge gestationnel, ce est à dire en utilisant le"Pregnancy Calculator".Ce est facile de simplement en entrant lepremier jour des dernières menstruations (HPHT) et si vous voulezplus de précision, entrez également la durée moyenne du cyclemenstruel chaque mois.Date de livraison ne peut être préditexactement, même si nous savons quand la date de conception.Cependant, la méthode d'estimation sur la base du premier jour desdernières menstruations (HPHT) est utilisé universellement par lesprofessionnels médicaux à travers le monde afin de déterminer votredate de conception.Grossesse calculatrice ci-dessous peut vousfaire un benchmark pour estimer quand votre bébé sera né. Entrez ladate du premier jour des dernières menstruations vous et si vousoubliez la date exacte, alors il suffit de compter le plus prèspossible.Médicalement, 40 semaines est une gestation commune.Rappelez-vous tous les mois au lieu de quatre semaines, mais peutêtre 4,5 semaines. En raison du nombre de semaines dans un moisvarie, la grossesse, telle que mesurée par la semaine sera beaucoupplus précise.La grossesse humaine dure habituellement 280 jours ou40 semaines depuis le premier jour Dernière menstruel. Si dans lepassé la durée de la grossesse est une question de 10 mois(habituellement de référence pour voir la lune dans le ciel), maispour le calendrier de grossesse est moderne neuf mois sept jours.La fécondation se produit (compte tenu du cycle menstruel moyennede 28 jours) environ 14 jours après HPHT. Ainsi, la durée réelle dela grossesse humaine est 280-14 = 266 jours.Most mothers orexpectant father when asked these questions difficult to answerimmediately, most conjectures based on the last menstrual days ormonths.Know gestational age, but can answer the questions above canalso determine what nutrients are needed by the mother and thefetus, and all that is or can be done by pregnant women agepregnancy, and other advantages.To that end, here is an easy way tocalculate gestational age, ie using the "Pregnancy Calculator".It'seasy to simply entering the first day of the last menstrual period(HPHT) and if you want more precision, also enter the averagelength of the menstrual cycle each month.Delivery date can not bepredicted accurately, even if we know when the date of conception.However, the estimation method based on the first day of lastmenstrual period (HPHT) is universally used by medicalprofessionals around the world to determine your date ofconception.Pregnancy calculator below can give you a benchmark toestimate when your baby is born. Enter the date of the first day ofthe last menstrual period and if you remember the exact date, thenjust count as close as possible.Medically, 40 weeks is a commonpregnancy. Remember every month instead of four weeks, but can be4.5 weeks. Due to the number of weeks in a month varies, pregnancy,as measured by the week will be much more accurate.Human pregnancyusually lasts 280 days or 40 weeks from the first day lastmenstrual. If in the past the length of pregnancy is about 10months (usually referred to see the moon in the sky), but for thepregnancy calendar is modern nine months seven days. Fertilizationoccurs (considering the average 28 day menstrual cycle)approximately 14 days after HPHT. Thus, the actual length of humanpregnancy is 280-14 = 266 days.
Busted Diet Myths 8.9
Need to lose weight? Before you give up the late night munching andgo on a no-fat detox frenzy to kick your sluggish metabolism intoshape, read what the experts have to say about these populardieting myths.Leading dietician Lyndel Costain says: 'People tendto think they need a low-fat diet to lose weight, but you shouldstill have a third of your calories coming from fat.'The body needsfat for energy, tissue repair and to transport vitamins A, D, E andK around the body.Lyndel Costain adds: 'As a guideline, women need70g of fat a day (95g for men) with 30g as the minimum (40g formen).'There's no need to follow a fat-free diet. Cutting down onsaturated fats and eating unsaturated fats, found in things likeolive oil and avocados, will help.This may be true in the shortterm, but ultimately it can hinder weight loss.Claire MacEvilly, anutritionist at the MRC Human Nutrition Research Centre inCambridge, explains: 'Losing weight over the long term burns offfat. Crash dieting or fasting not only removes fat but also leanmuscle and tissue.'The loss of lean muscle causes a fall in yourbasal metabolic rate – the amount of calories your body needs on adaily basis.This means your body will need fewer calories than itdid previously, making weight gain more likely once you stopdieting.It's also why exercise is recommended in any weight-lossplan to build muscle and maintain your metabolic rate.ClaireMacEvilly adds: 'Fasting can also make you feel dizzy or weak soit's much better to try long-term weight loss.'Many diets tell younot to eat after a certain time in the evening. They say the bodywill store more fat because it is not burned off with anyactivity.A study at the Dunn Nutrition Centre in Cambridge suggestsotherwise.Volunteers were placed in a whole body calorimeter, whichmeasures calories burned and stored.They were fed with a largelunch and small evening meal for one test period, then a smalllunch and large evening meal during a second test period.Theresults revealed the large meal eaten late at night did not makethe body store more fat.It's not when you eat that's important, butthe total amount you consume in a 24-hour period.Lyndel Costainadds: 'It is true that people who skip meals during the day, theneat loads in the evening are more likely to be overweight thanthose who eat regularly throughout the day.'This may be becauseeating regular meals helps people regulate their appetite andoverall food intake.'
Beauty Secrets 8.9
AustraliaThe Australian women take care of their skin to stay youngwith the help of tea tree oil. This oil makes all skin disorders soresolved. Simply by way of tea tree oil dripping into cleansers ormoisturizers to use. If hair dandruff, they have oil dripping intothe shampoo to wash. Dandruff can be lost !. The girls in Australialikes to wear sandals that expose the beauty of the foot. To makeyour stay wonderful legs, they apply to the foot avocadorough.Beauty is something that is possessed by every woman. Thereare already reflected, however, some are still hidden. Withtreatment, all women are able to highlight its beauty. The womenfrom various parts of the world have a natural beauty rituals aredifferent from each other.SpainSecrets of beautiful Spanish woman'shair is in Cranberry juice. They use this juice to wash it afterthey cleaned the hair with shampoo. The trick, mix 1/4 cupcranberry juice with 1/4 cup of water, then wash hair with themixture., To get rid of dark circles in the eye, woman Spain gluingthin potato slices on their eyes for 10 minutes.ChinaWhen the skindries, the Chinese women use olive oil to moisten. Olive oil isapplied onto dry skin several times a day. Olive oil can also beused to subdue wild hair child. The trick, put a little olive oilto the comb before combing.EgyptTo make teeth whiter, Egyptianwomen using a mixture of baking soda and coarse grain of salt.After mixing it in the fingertips, they rub it into the surface ofthe tooth. Another way is with a toothbrush dipped in a mixture ofbaking soda and salt, then they brush their teeth with thetoothbrush.BrazilBrazilian women use beach sand to get rid of deadskin cells from their bodies? How, by taking a handful of sand, andthen rubbed into the body!Scandinavian(Norway, Iceland, Denmark,Sweden and Finland)Scandinavian women know very well the importanceof water. They drank 2 liters of water every day and cold mineralwater splashed into their faces 15 to 20 times a day. This way theycan reach the skin beauty.IndiaIndian woman thicken and strengthenhair with the help of coconut oil. Started by massaging the scalpwith coconut oil mixed warm water. Let stand overnight and washedhair the next day.JamaicaBanana skin is very valuable for Jamaicanwomen. They use this skin to protect their faces from the sun andtake care of the burned skin. The trick is quite simple, bananaskins rubbed into the whole face. This trick is also known to treatacne!TaiwanTaiwanese woman happy tea to maintain the beauty of theskin. They used the tea to treat sunburns. Simply by applying teaused to the burned area.PolishHoney is the secret of women inPoland to moisturize the face. They smear honey all over your faceand then clean it after a while. They also use honey to softenlips.
Belly Workout At Home 8.9
Sport is one of the things required to be done for those who wantto be healthy life. However, many people are forced to do not havetime to do so because of constraints or activities of dailywork.Actually, the sport does not have to do with weight or shouldbe done outdoors. Actual exercise can be done anywhere and anytime.In addition, to get the maximum results also do not need toexercise a long time because a lot of people who think that thesport should be football or basketball.Also read:Seeing BenefitsOutstanding SportsSports Time it Takes More BenefitsEffectiveSports Lose Weight And SaveThough exercise can be done in the houseand a short time. Do not believe? Well, the following will explainthe various kinds of sports in the house which is quite fun.1.JoggingFor this kind of sport in the first house was jogging. Maybea lot of people who think that jogging should be done outdoorswhile jogging can be done indoors as it surrounds the house or withthe walk slowly in front of the television.78484269 XS 300x199 IdeaGood Idea For Sports In HouseIt is quite easy and you certainlywill sweat doing it.2. SquatFor this kind of sport in the nexthouse is the squat. Squat is a position like when you want to sit.You do this by bending your knees slowly and open your legsshoulder width apart with.211 images Idea Good Idea For Sports InHouseAfter that, stand up slowly with caution. Then keep your backbent. Perform continuously and slowly to get maximum results. Thesquat exercise is very suitable to tighten and strengthen the legsand buttocks.I personally like the squat exercise, includingpush-ups and sit-ups for not having to go out and can be done athome every morning.But what can motivate us to continue to exerciselike this? This is what I was looking for, if you android users, itcan download runtastic squats, runtastic push-ups, sit-ups orruntastic. The application can help you to stay motivated toexercise.3. DancingPerhaps many people think dancing is somethingthat relates to the art of motion. However, this dance can also beused as a solution to healthy sport, particularly sport in thehouse.22 images Idea Good Idea For Sports In HouseTo add to a senseof your spirit dance and accompanied by music. Keep in mind thatdancing can burn 130-150 calories in the body.4. Up and downstairsFor this kind of sport in the last house is going up and downstairs. With the up and down stairs is confirmed you will sweat.Even burning calories from up and down the stairs is greater thanjogging.article 4 300x255 Idea Good Idea For Sports In HouseFromthe above explanation can be concluded that exercise does not haveto be done outdoors. But it can be done anywhere and in accordancewith our wishes.
Dictionary Diet 8.9
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or otherorganism. Dietary habits are the habitual decisions an individualor culture makes when choosing what foods to eat. The word dietoften implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health orweight-management reasons (with the two often being related).Although humans are omnivores, each culture and each person holdssome food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due topersonal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices maybe more or less healthy.Proper nutrition requires ingestion andabsorption of vitamins, minerals, and food energy in the form ofcarbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Dietary habits and choices playa significant role in the quality of life, health and longevity. Itcan define cultures and play a role in religion.Many people chooseto forgo food from animal sources to varying degrees (e.g.flexitarianism, vegetarianism, veganism, fruitarianism) for healthreasons, issues surrounding morality, or to reduce their personalimpact on the environment, although some of the public assumptionsabout which diets have lower impacts are known to be incorrect. Rawfoodism is another contemporary trend. These diets may requiretuning or supplementation such as vitamins to meet ordinarynutritional needs.A particular diet may be chosen to seek weightloss or weight gain. Changing a subject's dietary intake, or "goingon a diet", can change the energy balance and increase or decreasethe amount of fat stored by the body. Some foods are specificallyrecommended, or even altered, for conformity to the requirements ofa particular diet. These diets are often recommended in conjunctionwith exercise. Specific weight loss programs can be harmful tohealth, while others may be beneficial (and can thus be coined ashealthy diets). The terms "healthy diet" and "diet for weightmanagement" are often related, as the two promote healthy weightmanagement. Having a healthy diet is a way to prevent healthproblems, and will provide your body with the right balance ofvitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.A healthy diet is one thathelps maintain or improve overall health. A healthy diet providesthe body with essential nutrition: fluid, adequate essential aminoacids from protein, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, andadequate calories. The requirements for a healthy diet can be metfrom a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods. A healthydiet supports energy needs and provides for human nutrition withoutexposure to toxicity or excessive weight gain from consumingexcessive amounts. Where lack of calories is not an issue, aproperly balanced diet (in addition to exercise) is also thought tobe important for lowering health risks, such as obesity, heartdisease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cancer.Various nutritionguides are published by medical and governmental institutions toeducate the public on what they should be eating to promote health.Nutrition facts labels are also mandatory in some countries toallow consumers to choose between foods based on the componentsrelevant to health.
Anatomia Human 8.9
La anatomía humana es la ciencia de carácter práctico y morfológicoprincipalmente dedicada al estudio de las estructuras macroscópicasdel cuerpo humano; dejando así el estudio de los tejidos a lahistología y de las células a la citología y biología celular. Laanatomía humana es un campo especial dentro de la anatomía general(animal).Bajo una visión sistemática, el cuerpo humano —como loscuerpos de los animales—, está organizado en diferentes nivelessegún una jerarquía. Así, está compuesto de aparatos. Éstos losintegran sistemas, que a su vez están compuestos por órganos, queestán compuestos por tejidos, que están formados por células, queestán formados por moléculas, etc. Otras visiones (funcional,morfogenética, clínica, etc.), bajo otros criterios, entienden elcuerpo humano de forma un poco diferente.Algunas ramas odisciplinas como la osteología, la miología, la artrología, laangiología o la neuroanatomía cercan los límites de estudio delcuerpo humano de una manera más particular. Así, la miologíarealiza el estudio específico de los músculos, sus característicasy funciones; y la neuroanatomía realiza el estudio del sistemanervioso en forma extensiva.La anatomía sistemática o descriptiva:esquematiza el estudio del cuerpo humano fraccionándolo en lasmínimas partes constituyentes, y organizándolas por sistemas yaparatos.La anatomía topográfica o regional: organiza el estudiodel cuerpo por regiones siguiendo diversos criterios. La anatomíaregional tiende a un arreglo más funcional y práctico, bajo unentendimiento más abarcativo de las relaciones entre las diferentesestructuras componentes. La anatomía de superficie es un áreaesencial en el estudio, pues los recuadros de anatomía desuperficie ofrecen una información visible y táctil sobre lasestructuras que se sitúan debajo de la piel.La anatomía clínica:pone énfasis sobre el estudio de la estructura y la función encorrelación a situaciones de índole médico-clínica (y otrasciencias de la salud). Aquí importan diferentes áreas como: laanatomía quirúrgica; la anatomía radiológica y ultrasonográfica enrelación al diagnóstico por imágenes; la anatomía morfogenética quese relaciona con las enfermedades congénitas del desarrollo; laanatomopatología, etc.La anatomía artística: trata de lascuestiones anatómicas que afectan directamente a la representaciónartística de la figura humana. Por ejemplo, los músculos queaparecen superficialmente y sus tensiones según las diferentesposturas o esfuerzos; las transformaciones anatómicas que seproducen en función de la edad, de la "raza" (o mejor dicho clina ofisiotipo), de las enfermedades; las transformaciones anatómicasdebidas al gesto o las emociones se estudian en una subdivisión dela anatomía humana artística denominada fisiognomía o bienfisiognómica.Un sistema es un grupo de órganos asociados queconcurren en una función general y están formados predominantementepor los mismos tipos de tejidos. Por ejemplo: el sistemaesquelético, el sistema cardiovascular, el sistema nervioso,etc.Sistema inmunitario: Sistema tegumentario: piel, pelo yuñas.Sistema nervioso: recogida, transferencia y procesado deinformación. Formado por el sistema nervioso central (encéfalo ymédula espinal) y el sistema nervioso periférico (nervios de todoel cuerpo).Sistema cardiovascular: formado por el corazón,arterias, venas y capilares.Sistema linfático: formado por loscapilares, vasos y ganglios linfáticos, bazo, Timo y MédulaÓsea.Sistema endocrino: comunicación dentro del cuerpo mediantehormonas. Está formado por las glándulas endocrinas que sintetizanhormonas y las vuelcan al medio interno (sangre, linfa, líquidointersticial) como son hipófisis, tiroides, timo, suprarrenales,páncreas y gónadas y por células secretoras que se encuentran enórganos que no son propiamente glándulas pero segregan hormonascomo ocurre con el riñón y el corazón.Sistema muscular: Sistemaóseo: Sistema articular:
Cancer Terms Malignant Benign 8.9
Cancer also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is agroup of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potentialto invade or spread to other parts of the body. Not all tumors arecancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body.Possible signs and symptoms include: a new lump, abnormal bleeding,a prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowelmovements, among others. While these symptoms may indicate cancerthey may also occur due to other issues. There are over 100different known cancers that affect humans.Tobacco use is the causeof about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% is due to obesity, apoor diet, lack of physical activity, and drinking alcohol. Otherfactors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation,and environmental pollutants. In the developing world nearly 20% ofcancers are due to infections such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, andhuman papillomavirus. These factors act, at least partly, bychanging the genes of a cell. Typically many such genetic changesare required before cancer develops. Approximately 5–10% of cancersare due to genetic defects inherited from a person's parents.Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or screeningtests. It is then typically further investigated by medical imagingand confirmed by biopsy.Many cancers can be prevented by notsmoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too muchalcohol, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits and whole grains,being vaccinated against certain infectious diseases, not eatingtoo much red meat, and avoiding too much exposure to sunlight.Early detection through screening is useful for cervical andcolorectal cancer. The benefits of screening in breast cancer arecontroversial. Cancer is often treated with some combination ofradiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy.Pain and symptom management are an important part of care.Palliative care is particularly important in those with advanceddisease. The chance of survival depends on the type of cancer andextent of disease at the start of treatment. In children under 15at diagnosis the five year survival rate in the developed world ison average 80%. For cancer in the United States the average fiveyear survival rate is 66%.In 2012 about 14.1 million new cases ofcancer occurred globally. It caused about 8.2 million deaths or14.6% of all human deaths. The most common types of cancer in malesare lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and stomachcancer, and in females, the most common types are breast cancer,colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and cervical cancer. Skin cancerother than melanoma is not included in these statistics and if itwere it would account for at least 40% of cases. In children acutelymphoblastic leukaemia and brain tumors are most common except inAfrica where non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs more often. In 2012 about165,000 children less than 15 years of age were diagnosed withcancer. The risk of cancer increases significantly with age andmany cancers occur more commonly in developed countries. Rates areincreasing as more people live to an old age and as lifestylechanges occur in the developing world. The financial costs ofcancer have been estimated at $1.16 trillion US dollars per year asof 2010
Anatomy Reference 8.9
Anatomical terms used to describe location are based on a bodypositioned in what is called the standard anatomical position. Thisposition is one in which a person is standing, feet apace, withpalms forward and thumbs facing outwards This incdreases anatomicalposition. Just as maps are normally oriented with north at the top,the standard body “map,” or anatomical position, is that of thebody standing upright, with the feet at shoulder width andparallel, toes forward. The upper limbs are held out to each side,and the palms of the hands face forward.Using the standardanatomical position reduces confusion. It means that regardless ofthe position of a body, the position of structures within it can bedescribed without ambiguity.RegionsMain article: List of humananatomical regionsThe human body is shown in anatomical position inan anterior view and a posterior view. The regions of the body arelabeled in boldface.In terms of anatomy, the body is divided intoregions. In the front, the trunk is referred to as the "thorax" and"abdomen". The back as a general area is the dorsum or dorsal area,and the lower back as the limbus or lumbar region. The shoulderblades are the scapular area and the breastbone is the sternalregion. The abdominal area is the region between the chest and thepelvis. The breast is also called the mammary region, the armpit asthe axilla and axillary, and the navel as the umbilicus andumbilical. The pelvis is the lower torso, between the abdomen andthe thighs. The groin, where the thigh joins the trunk, are theinguen and inguinal area. The entire arm is referred to as thebrachium and brachial, the front of the elbow as the antecubitisand antecubital, the back of the elbow as the olecranon orolecranal, the forearm as the antebrachium and antebrachial, thewrist as the carpus and carpal area, the hand as the manus andmanual, the palm as the palma and palmar, the thumb as the pollex,and the fingers as the digits, phalanges, and phalangeal. Thebuttocks are the gluteus or gluteal region and the pubic area isthe pubis.Anatomists divide the lower limb into the thigh (the partof the limb between the hip and the knee) and the leg (which refersonly to the area of the limb between the knee and the ankle). Thethigh is the femur and the femoral region. The kneecap is thepatella and patellar while the back of the knee is the popliteusand popliteal area. The leg (between the knee and the ankle) is thecrus and crural area, the lateral aspect of the leg is the peronealarea, and the calf is the sura and sural region. The ankle is thetarsus and tarsal, and the heel is the calcaneus or calcaneal. Thefoot is the pes and pedal region, and the sole of the foot theplanta and plantar. As with the fingers, the toes are also calledthe digits, phalanges, and phalangeal area. The big toe is referredto as the hallux.AbdomenAbdominal regions are used for example tolocalize pain.Main article: AbdomenTo promote clear communication,for instance about the location of a patient’s abdominal pain or asuspicious mass, the abdominal cavity can be divided into eithernine regions or four quadrantsQuadrantsThe abdomen may be dividedinto four quadrants, more commonly used in medicine, subdivides thecavity with one horizontal and one vertical line that intersect atthe patient’s umbilicus (navel). The right upper quadrant (RUQ)includes the lower right ribs, right side of the liver, and rightside of the transverse colon. The left upper quadrant (LUQ)includes the lower left ribs, stomach, spleen, and upper left areaof the transverse colon. The right lower quadrant (RLQ) includesthe right half of the small intestines, ascending colon, rightpelvic bone and upper right area of the bladder. The left lowerquadrant (LLQ) contains the left half of the small intestine andleft pelvic bone
Businessman Success Tale 8.9
This morning the wife asked why people like Vitale get appointed tohigh office."For the same reason they get elected governor. Peoplebelieve that successful businessmen are gods. They are wizards withmoney, and they will save us from our sins."Why do papers like theTrib and the Disgraced Sun Times support successful businessmenlike Bruce Rauner for high office? We know why the Sun Timessupported him - close friendship in the executive suite. But whatmotivated the denizens of The Dark Tower to throw all theirself-righteousness Rauner's way?The Trib's editors got together andchanted, "Mirror, mirror, on the wall, who's the fairest of themall?" and the mirror said, "Bruce Rauner."Fairest, meaning mostlovely, because he has lots of experience making businessessuccessful.He does what businessmen are 'spose to do, and he doesit well.So did David Vitale.We continue to trust these mooksbecause we believe in fairy tales.Fairy tale number one: "I'll havewhat he's having." The line references the most memorable scene inWhen Harry Met Sally.The tale runs thus: If a businessman issuccessful at building his business, then he will be able to runthe government. So we should look for a man who just does whatbusinessmen are 'spose to do, and does it well.As I've said before,what businessmen do well is make money for themselves, and create amachine that keeps pumping money into their pockets.How do they doit? How do American businessmen create success?There are two waysto grow a business and make it prosper. One is by increasing sales.The other is by reducing the work force. Oh, and if you are a savvybanker, you make money by using other people's money, as WoodyAllen said of stock brokers, "until it's all used up." That's whatDavid Vitale has done.For the last umpteen years in America,increasing sales has been next to impossible. It yields slow growthand it doesn't build reputations. The other way is far more common.Cutting staff is the go-to, sure-fire solution to everybusinessman's problem. It is the mantra of the managementconsultant: "Cut the staff, man; cut staff, man; reduce thepayroll, reduce the payroll; cut the payroll, cut the payroll;reduce the workforce, reduce the workforce." Sing this to "HariKrishna."This is how people like Bruce Rauner get their reputationfor being great businessmen. They make money by shrinking theeconomy. Only it increases wealth at the top, where all thesensitive instruments that measure economic growth are located, sothe indicators report that they boost the economy.But like the casewith David Vitale, that's a bit of smoke and "mirror, mirror on thewall."In fact, running government like today's movers and shakersrun business is a bad idea in every way except that businessmenknow how to cook the books legally. But the bottom line remains thesame: Less government is not better government. Less is not "more,"no matter how well Bruce Rauner and Company cook it.You may wantwhat the businessman is having, but what you'll get is, like whenHarry met Sally, a brilliantly faked orgasm.Fairy tale number two:Businessmen are job creators.There are only two ways for abusinessman to create jobs: One is, and welcome back, increasingsales. The other is scientific research that can lead to innovationand the creation of "startups."I almost said "new industries," butour economy is not an industrial economy. It's a technologicaleconomy and a service economy. The first requires advanced degreesand high intelligence. The second requires that you not have adegree and that you quash all independence of thought and action.The only requirement for many service-industry jobs is that you beable to read a script - I'm thinking of those idiot scripts youencounter on the telephone. "Hi, and welcome. How can I help you.First, may I ask how you are doing today?
Aptitude Kuis 8.9
A quiz is a form of game or sport of the mind in which the players(as individuals or in teams) attempt to answer questions correctly.In some countries, a quiz is also a brief assessment used ineducation and similar fields to measure growth in knowledge,abilities, and/or skills.Quizzes are usually scored in points andmany quizzes are designed to determine a winner from a group ofparticipants - usually the participant with the highestscore.Quizzes may be held on a variety of subjects (generalknowledge, 'pot luck') or subject-specific. The format of the quizcan also vary widely. Popularly known competition quizzesincludePub quizzesQuiz bowlin Australia:Music for the MissioninBelgium:Belgian Style Quizzingin Canada:Reach for the TopinIndia:see Quizzing in India, for a discussion on the specificevolution of the quizzing culture in Indiain Lithuania:Protmušisinthe United Kingdom:British Quizzing Championships, annual nationaltournament in Great BritainUniversity Challenge (televised)Schools'Challengein the United States:College BowlNational Academic QuizTournamentsAcademic Competition FederationIndividual quiztournamentsin multiple countries:World QuizzingChampionshipsEuropean Quizzing Championshipsin the UnitedKingdom:Mastermind (televised)Bait Bazi poetic quiz inPakistanBoard games:Trivial PursuitBezzerwizzerTV quizzes, alsocalled quiz shows (game shows TV/radio)Quiz Call phone-intelevision showJeopardy!Who Wants to be a MillionaireThe WeakestLinkBBC's MasterMindBait Bazi poetic quizBamboozle!, a teletextquiz on UK TVOnline quizBlog QuizSee also:Quiz leagueQuizmachineThe largest quiz, according to Guinness, was the "Quiz forLife", held at the Flanders Expo Halls in Ghent, Belgium, on 11December 2010 with 2,280 participants. The winning team Café DeKastaar from Leuven was composed of Marnix Baes, Erik Derycke, EricHemelaers, Bart Permentier and Tom Trogh.In an educational context,a quiz is usually a form of a student assessment, but often hasfewer questions of lesser difficulty and requires less time forcompletion than a test. This use is typically found in the US,Canada, and some colleges in India. For instance, in a mathematicsclassroom, a quiz may check comprehension of a type of mathematicalexercise. A "pop quiz" is a quiz that students are given no time toprepare for; they are simply surprised with it inclass.Additionally, a personality quiz may be a series ofmultiple-choice questions about the respondent without right orwrong answers. The responses to these questions are talliedaccording to a key, and the result purports to reveal some qualityof the respondent. This kind of "quiz" was originally popularizedby women's magazines such as Cosmopolitan. They have since becomecommon on the Internet, where the result page typically includescode which can be added to a blog entry to publicize the result.These postings are common on LiveJournal.There are also many onlinequizzes. Many webmasters have quiz sections on their websites andforums; for instance, phpBB2 has one MOD (modification) whichallows users to submit quizzes, called the Ultimate Quiz MOD.Theresults of online quizzes are generally to be taken lightly, asthey do not often reflect the true personality or relationship.They are also rarely psychometrically valid. However, they mayoccasion reflection on the subject of the quiz and provide aspringboard for a person to explore his or her emotions, beliefs,or actions.Test (student assessment)
Chicken Recipes Easy 8.9
Pair this entrée with a simple rice pilaf: Heat 1 tablespoon canolaoil in a large saucepan over medium-high heat. Add 1⁄2 cup choppedonion and 2 teaspoons grated peeled fresh ginger to pan; sauté 2minutes. Stir in 1 cup water, 1⁄2 cup long-grain rice, and 1⁄4teaspoon salt; bring to a boil. Cover, reduce heat, and simmer 12minutes or until liquid is absorbed. Remove from heat; stir in 2tablespoons chopped fresh cilantro.Chicken is a quick and healthyway to get dinner on the table, but there's only so many grilledchicken breasts you can eat before your taste buds beg forsomething else. These recipes lighten traditional Italian,Japanese, and Greek chicken dishes so that you have 18 simple waysto make flavor-packed poultry.
Css Installation Instructions 8.9
Diabetes Information 8.9
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is agroup of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugarlevels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugarinclude frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger.If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acutecomplications include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotichyperosmolar coma. Serious long-term complications includecardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers anddamage to the eyes.Diabetes is due to either the pancreas notproducing enough insulin or the cells of the body not respondingproperly to the insulin produced. There are three main types ofdiabetes mellitus:Type 1 DM results from the body's failure toproduce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as"insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenilediabetes". The cause is unknown.Type 2 DM begins with insulinresistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulinproperly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may alsodevelop. This form was previously referred to as "noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onsetdiabetes".Prevention and treatment involves a healthy diet,physical exercise, not using tobacco and being a normal bodyweight. Blood pressure control and proper foot care are alsoimportant for people with the disease. Type 1 diabetes must bemanaged with insulin injections. Type 2 diabetes may be treatedwith medications with or without insulin. Insulin and some oralmedications can cause low blood sugar. Weight loss surgery in thosewith obesity is an effective measure in those with type 2 DM.Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of thebaby.The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are weight loss,polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), andpolyphagia (increased hunger). Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeksor months) in type 1 diabetes, while they usually develop much moreslowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 diabetes.Several othersigns and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes, although theyare not specific to the disease. In addition to the known onesabove, they include blurry vision, headache, fatigue, slow healingof cuts, and itchy skin. Prolonged high blood glucose can causeglucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to changesin its shape, resulting in vision changes. A number of skin rashesthat can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabeticdermadromes.People (usually with type 1 diabetes) may alsoexperience episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis, a type of metabolicproblems characterized by nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain, thesmell of acetone on the breath, deep breathing known as Kussmaulbreathing, and in severe cases a decreased level of consciousness.Arare but equally severe possibility is hyperosmolar nonketoticstate, which is more common in type 2 diabetes and is mainly theresult of dehydration.Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized byloss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the islets ofLangerhans in the pancreas, leading to insulin deficiency. Thistype can be further classified as immune-mediated or idiopathic.The majority of type 1 diabetes is of the immune-mediated nature,in which a T-cell-mediated autoimmune attack leads to the loss ofbeta cells and thus insulin. It causes approximately 10% ofdiabetes mellitus cases in North America and Europe. Most affectedpeople are otherwise healthy and of a healthy weight when onsetoccurs. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usuallynormal, especially in the early stages. Type 1 diabetes can affectchildren or adults, but was traditionally termed "juvenilediabetes" because a majority of these diabetes cases were inchildren.
Corporate Business Development 8.9
Corporate development refers to the planning and execution of awide range of strategies to meet specific organizationalobjectives. The kinds of activities falling under corporatedevelopment may include initiatives such as recruitment of a newmanagement team, plans for phasing in or out of certain markets orproducts, considering a partner for a strategic alliance,establishing relationships with strategic business partners,identifying and acquiring companies, securing financing, divestingof assets or divisions, increasing intellectual property assets andso on. There is no formula for "corporate development" and theactivities encompassed are often the role of the CEO or otherexecutives or experienced business consultants.One of themanifestations of corporate development has to do with reshapingthe management arm of the corporation. This may involve a processof phasing certain management positions out of the existingstructure or creating new positions in an effort to strengthen themanagement team. As part of this type of approach, corporatedevelopment may also demand that one or more current managers arereleased from the company and replaced with people who possessskills required to move the company forward. When this is the case,the corporate development team will handle the functions ofrecruitment and evaluation of potential hires.