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Description

Ein Patent ist ein hoheitlich erteiltes gewerbliches Schutzrechtfür eine Erfindung. Der Inhaber des Patents ist berechtigt, anderendie Nutzung der Erfindung zu erlauben oder zu untersagen.Dasdeutsche Wort wurde im 17. Jahrhundert aus dem französischenpatente („Bestallungsbrief, Gewerbeschein“) entlehnt. Dieses istgekürzt aus lettre patente („offener Brief“) und geht auf daslateinische (littera) patens („offener (Beglaubigungs-)Brief desLandesherrn“) zurück. Ursprünglich war „eine Urkunde über bestimmteRechte“ gemeint, die heute überwiegende Bedeutung entwickelte sichmit dem modernen Patentwesen seit dem 19. Jahrhundert. Jährlichwerden über 2 Millionen Patente beantragt.Der Patenteigner hat dasRecht, eine Nachahmung und Nutzung seiner geschützten Erfindung füreinen bestimmten Zeitraum zu verhindern. Damit wird es ihmermöglicht, einen monopolistischen Preis zu realisieren und nichtnur eine Kompensation für die Erforschungs- und Entwicklungskostender Erfindung, sondern auch einen Profit zu erhalten.Dasgrundsätzliche Problem, das der Patentschutz lösen soll, istMarktversagen, das sich aus der positiven Externalität vonForschung ergibt: In der Regel liegt der soziale Nutzen einerErfindung deutlich über dem privaten Nutzen. Deswegen würde dieprivate Forschung allein zu wenig investieren. Zu schwacheEigentumsrechte führen zu suboptimalen Innovationsraten, weilInvestoren unzureichend entlohnt werden. Der Staat kann diesesMarktversagen bekämpfen, indem er Forschung durch Steuergeldersubventioniert, oder indem er geistige Eigentumsrechte definiertund schützt. Ein zu starker Eigentumsschutz ist jedoch ebenfallsnicht optimal, weil Erfindungen dann zu wenig genutzt undweiterentwickelt werden können. Die Stärke des Eigentumsschutzesvariiert entlang verschiedener Dimensionen. Die Höhe definiert,welche Erfindungen geschützt werden können. Die Länge definiert,wie lange eine Erfindung geschützt werden kann. Die Tiefe definiertden Umfang der geschützten Aktivitäten.Es besteht also im Fall vonPatenten ein Tradeoff zwischen der Schaffung von Anreizen zurForschung und Veröffentlichung von Erfindungen einerseits, und derEinschränkung der Nutzung geschützter Erfindungen während derPatentlaufzeit andererseits. Neben der Einschränkung derpraktischen Nutzung von Erfindungen gibt es möglicherweise auchnegative Auswirkungen auf die Geschwindigkeit der Weiterentwicklungdes wissenschaftlichen Kenntnisstands (seit Ende der 1990er Jahreunter dem Begriff Anti-Allmende diskutiert): Wenn neuewissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse und Methoden patentrechtlichgeschützt werden, wird es anderen Forschern erschwert, die Methodenzu nutzen und auf diesem Wissen aufzubauen.A patent is a statutoryintellectual property right granted for an invention. The owner ofthe patent is entitled to authorize others to use the invention orprohibit.The German word was borrowed in the 17th century from theFrench patents ("Bestallungsbrief, business license"). This isreduced from lettre patente ("Open Letter") and goes back to theLatin (littera) patens ("open (credential) letter of thesovereign"). Originally it was "an instrument of certain rights"meant that today the vast importance grew with the modern patentsystem since the 19th century. Over 2 million patents are appliedfor annually.The patent owner has the right to prevent copying anduse of his patented invention for a limited period. This makes itpossible for him to realize a monopolistic price and not only toobtain compensation for the exploration and development costs ofthe invention, but also a profit.The basic problem to solve, patentprotection is market failure which results from the positiveexternality of research: In general, the social benefits of theinvention is significantly higher than the private benefit.Therefore, the private research alone would invest too little. Weakproperty rights lead to sub-optimal rates of innovation, becauseinvestors are inadequately remunerated. The State can fight thismarket failure by subsidizing research by tax dollars, or bydefining and protecting intellectual property rights. However, toostrong property protection is also not optimal because inventionsmay be too little used and further developed. The strength of theprotection of property varies along different dimensions. Theheight defines which inventions can be protected. The lengthdefines how long an invention can be protected. The depth definesthe scope of protected activities.Thus, in the case of patents, atrade-off between providing incentives for research and publicationof inventions on the one hand, and the restriction of the use ofprotected inventions during the patent term on the other. Inaddition to the limitation of the practical use of inventions,there may also have negative effects on the rate of development ofscientific knowledge (discussed since the late 1990s, the termanti-commons): As new scientific knowledge and methods for patentprotection, there is another researchers difficult to use themethods and build on this knowledge.

App Information Patente - Kampfsport_2

  • App Name
    Patente - Kampfsport_2
  • Package Name
    com.wKampfsport_2
  • Updated
  • File Size
    Undefined
  • Requires Android
    Android
  • Version
  • Developer
  • Installs
    -
  • Price
    Free
  • Category
    Books & Reference
  • Developer
  • Google Play Link

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