1.0 / January 4, 2018
(3.7/5) (9)
Loading...

Description

Play the game Stick War, lightsaber one of the biggest most fun,challenging, and addicting stick figure games. Control your army informations or play each unit, you have total control. Build units,learn the way of the war. Destroy the enemy statue, and capture allTerritories.In a world called Legacy, you're surrounded bydiscriminate nations devoted to their individual nations technologyand struggle for dominance. Each nation has developed its ownunique way to defend and attack. Proud of their unique craft theyhave become obsessed to the point of worship, turning weapons toreligion. Each believe that their way of life is the only way, andare dedicated to teaching their polices to all other nationsthrough what there leaders claim as divine intervention, or as youwill know it... war. You are the leader of the nation called"Stickman Ghost", your way is of peace and knowledge, your peopledo not worship their weapons as gods. This makes you a mark forinfiltration by the surrounding nations. Your only chance to defendis to attack first, and obtain the technologys from each nationalong the way.Many of the empires you have previously controlledhave rebelled against the frontier of their homeland. Their numbersswell up and under the leadership of the Anger terrorists havebecome a dangerous threat to your Order Empire!Return to the landof Legacy and gather the people under one banner ... but beware ofthe evil in the air and you will not be able to face it!Stickfigure exists since the first man got the desire to depict hiseveryday life. Cave paintings show us how the primitive man livedor hunted. The people and animals were depicted as a figureswithout many features. A dot or a small circle represented thehead, vertical line was the body and additional lines were arms andlegs. Even thou today we use many different techniques to representdifferent things we still use the simple figure in our everydaylife. This simple stick figure is used to show the nearest exit forexample or to warn us to wet floors showing the person slipping.Toilets are also labeled with stick figures showing man and womancabins. Fire exits and staircases, traffic lights and many othersigns today use this figure as the simplest way of passing down aninformation to the public. The Stickman represents a human beingwithout any specifics and that is what makes it a perfect for thejob of conveying information in the best way possible. Although ifnecessary some additional features may be added to make theinformation more precise as in the example of male and femaletoilet signs. Stick figure is here since the dawn of man and ishere to stay and help us navigate this complex world.Some gamedevelopers realize that the most important thing about the game isthe gameplay itself. They don't concentrate on fancy details andwaste their time and money on designing fancy characters. Somethingsimilar happens with low resolution games. Sometimes the bestarcades are those the simpliest ones. It's not always about thegraphics, actually, it never is. This is where stickman lightsabercomes in. That's why these games are so popular.The stick figure'searliest roots are in prehistoric art. Tens of thousands of yearslater, writing systems that use images for words or morphemes—e.g.logographies such as Egyptian and Chinese—started simplifyingpeople and other objects to be used as linguistic symbols.There isalso a modern history that traces at least in part from RudolfModley's extending the use of figures from Isotype for commercialuse. The first international use of stick figures is in the 1964Summer Olympics in Tokyo. Pictograms created by Japanese designersMasaru Katzumie and Yoshiro Yamashita formed the basis of futurepictograms. In 1972, Otl Aicher developed the round ended,geometric grid based stick figures used on the signage, printedmaterials, and television for the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich.

App Information Stick War Dash - Revenge Lightsaber Warrior

  • App Name
    Stick War Dash - Revenge Lightsaber Warrior
  • Package Name
    com.windev.legacyangerofstick.stickwardash
  • Updated
    January 4, 2018
  • File Size
    Undefined
  • Requires Android
    Android 4.0 and up
  • Version
    1.0
  • Developer
    Paomai
  • Installs
    1,000+
  • Price
    Free
  • Category
    Action
  • Developer
    160/25 Samae Dam, Bang Khun Thian, Bangkok, 10150
  • Google Play Link

Paomai Show More...

Bomber Birds - Angry Land For Bird 1.2 APK
Paomai
Bomber Birds - Angry Land New game 2018 knock down game isaddictive one. In this game you have to kill all monster byblasting bombs at accurate position. Different types of monsterwill be their with different powers so be care. bomber birds gamehaving good one's also & your aim should be to rescue goodone's by killing all angry monsters. Bomber Birds Game Features:-Each world in knock down game have 5 different levels- Game ishaving 6 different world- Fantastic graphics & sound effects-In this game to entertain you all, in menu screen some differenttypes of birds will moving & you can kill them also just bytapping them.Taking inspiration from the classic Bomber Birdsgames, Bomber Friends allows you to take control of your characterand work through a series of levels using a combination of skilland logic. During each level, you must find a suitable path throughthe maze and blast apart the obstructing blocks using your bombs.Before you can reach the exit, you must find a key to unlock thefinal door, and defeat opponents who block your path.In each level,you can collect certain power-ups which include a bomb damageboost, extra bombs, and additional lives. Use your bombs wisely andremember that once a bomb has been placed, your enemies cannot passthis point. At the end of each level, you can choose from a varietyof rewards, and upgrade your characters appearance and stats.Ittook two ships almost a year to travel halfway across the world.They had left Britain to sail to the Montebello islands, anarchipelago 80 miles off the north-western coast of Australia. Theships carried a naval crew and royal engineers, who had a specifictask: to prepare the site for the testing of Britain’s first atomicbomb. On 3 October 1952 at 9.24am local time, just after midnightin London, Britain entered the nuclear age. The test was of aplutonium bomb with a yield of approximately 25 kilotons. Thedetonation was awe-inspiring. William Penney, the scientificdirector and a noted mathematical physicist, described the momenthe witnessed the explosion: “The sight before our eyes wasterrifying – a great greyish cloud being hurled thousands of feetinto the air and increasing in size with astonishing rapidity.” Thecloud itself was a strange Z-shape, very different to the customarymushroom clouds associated with nuclear weapons tests. The reasonwas simple: the device had been placed three metres below thewaterline and so the mixture of water and mud changed the cloud’sshape. The rationale for this was also straightforward. Theexperiment was designed not only to confirm that the science hadbeen mastered, but also to test the effects of a detonation inshallow water. This was exactly the sort of result that might beproduced if the Soviet Union smuggled one of its atomic bombs intoa harbour in the United Kingdom: what might be the opening salvo ofa third world war. The original idea that the splitting of heavyelements could be harnessed as a weapon was proposed by two émigréscientists in 1940. Otto Frisch and Rudolf Peierls, both from theUniversity of Birmingham, showed that the ‘super-bomb’, as theytermed it, could be constructed. The two physicists were clearabout what they were proposing: “Then energy liberated in theexplosion of such a super-bomb… will, for an instant, produce atemperature comparable to that in the interior of the sun. Theblast from such an explosion would destroy life in a wide area. Thesize of this area is difficult to estimate, but it will probablycover the centre of a big city.” The only defence against an atombomb, they argued, was the threat from a similar bomb.On 16 July1945 in the Alamogordo desert, the first ever atomic device –Trinity – was exploded. Within a few weeks two different types ofbomb – one plutonium implosion; the other uranium gun-method – weredropped on Japan. With the subsequent end of the war,
Warling Birds - Special Force 1.0 APK
Paomai
Warling Birds - Special Force. The word soldier derives from theMiddle English word soudeour, from Old French soudeer or soudeour,meaning mercenary, from soudee, meaning shilling's worth or wage,from sou or soud, shilling. The word is also related to theMedieval Latin soldarius, meaning soldier (literally, "one havingpay"). These words ultimately derive from the Late Latin wordsolidus, referring to an Ancient Roman coin used in the ByzantineEmpire.In most armed forces use of the word "soldier" has taken ona more general meaning due to the increasing specialization ofmilitary occupations that require different areas of knowledge andskill-sets. As a result, "soldiers" are referred to by names orranks which reflect an individual's military occupation specialtyarm, service, or branch of military employment, their type of unit,or operational employment or technical use such as: trooper, tanker(a member of tank crew), commando, dragoon, infantryman,artilleryman, marine, paratrooper, grenadier, ranger, sniper,engineer, sapper, craftsman, signaller, medic, or a gunner.In manycountries soldiers serving in specific occupations are referred toby terms other than their occupational name. For example, militarypolice personnel in the British Army are known as "red caps"because of the colour of their caps (and berets).Infantry aresometimes called "grunts" (in the United States Army or UnitedStates Marine Corps) or "squaddies" (in the British Army), whileU.S. Army artillery crews, or "gunners," are sometimes referred toas "redlegs", from the service branch color for artillery.[citationneeded] U.S. soldiers are often called "G.I.s" (short for the term"General Issue"). Members of the Marine Corps are typicallyreferred to as "marines" rather than "soldiers".In the UnitedStates, the term warfighter is often used to refer collectively toall whose job it is to do the actual fighting, although in 2011 theU.S. Army officially started calling its combat personnel soldiersinstead of warfighters, in part to avoid confusion among"warfighters" assigned to peace-keeping or other types of dutiesbeyond combat activities. The army has not completely phased outthis terminology and still uses "warfighter" in various contextssuch as the Project Manager Warfighter InformationNetwork-Tactical.French Marine Infantry are called marsouins(French: porpoises) because of their amphibious role.[citationneeded] Military units in most armies have nicknames of this type,arising either from items of distinctive uniform, some historicalconnotation or rivalry between branches or regiments.Some soldiers,such as conscripts or draftees, serve a single limited term. Otherschoose to serve until retirement; then they receive a pension andother benefits. In the United States, military members can retireafter 20 years. In other countries, the term of service is 30years, hence the term "30-year man".
Stick War Dash - Revenge Lightsaber Warrior 1.0 APK
Paomai
Play the game Stick War, lightsaber one of the biggest most fun,challenging, and addicting stick figure games. Control your army informations or play each unit, you have total control. Build units,learn the way of the war. Destroy the enemy statue, and capture allTerritories.In a world called Legacy, you're surrounded bydiscriminate nations devoted to their individual nations technologyand struggle for dominance. Each nation has developed its ownunique way to defend and attack. Proud of their unique craft theyhave become obsessed to the point of worship, turning weapons toreligion. Each believe that their way of life is the only way, andare dedicated to teaching their polices to all other nationsthrough what there leaders claim as divine intervention, or as youwill know it... war. You are the leader of the nation called"Stickman Ghost", your way is of peace and knowledge, your peopledo not worship their weapons as gods. This makes you a mark forinfiltration by the surrounding nations. Your only chance to defendis to attack first, and obtain the technologys from each nationalong the way.Many of the empires you have previously controlledhave rebelled against the frontier of their homeland. Their numbersswell up and under the leadership of the Anger terrorists havebecome a dangerous threat to your Order Empire!Return to the landof Legacy and gather the people under one banner ... but beware ofthe evil in the air and you will not be able to face it!Stickfigure exists since the first man got the desire to depict hiseveryday life. Cave paintings show us how the primitive man livedor hunted. The people and animals were depicted as a figureswithout many features. A dot or a small circle represented thehead, vertical line was the body and additional lines were arms andlegs. Even thou today we use many different techniques to representdifferent things we still use the simple figure in our everydaylife. This simple stick figure is used to show the nearest exit forexample or to warn us to wet floors showing the person slipping.Toilets are also labeled with stick figures showing man and womancabins. Fire exits and staircases, traffic lights and many othersigns today use this figure as the simplest way of passing down aninformation to the public. The Stickman represents a human beingwithout any specifics and that is what makes it a perfect for thejob of conveying information in the best way possible. Although ifnecessary some additional features may be added to make theinformation more precise as in the example of male and femaletoilet signs. Stick figure is here since the dawn of man and ishere to stay and help us navigate this complex world.Some gamedevelopers realize that the most important thing about the game isthe gameplay itself. They don't concentrate on fancy details andwaste their time and money on designing fancy characters. Somethingsimilar happens with low resolution games. Sometimes the bestarcades are those the simpliest ones. It's not always about thegraphics, actually, it never is. This is where stickman lightsabercomes in. That's why these games are so popular.The stick figure'searliest roots are in prehistoric art. Tens of thousands of yearslater, writing systems that use images for words or morphemes—e.g.logographies such as Egyptian and Chinese—started simplifyingpeople and other objects to be used as linguistic symbols.There isalso a modern history that traces at least in part from RudolfModley's extending the use of figures from Isotype for commercialuse. The first international use of stick figures is in the 1964Summer Olympics in Tokyo. Pictograms created by Japanese designersMasaru Katzumie and Yoshiro Yamashita formed the basis of futurepictograms. In 1972, Otl Aicher developed the round ended,geometric grid based stick figures used on the signage, printedmaterials, and television for the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich.
Swat Cat - The Kats Warrior RPG 1.0 APK
Paomai
In the United States, a SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) team isa law enforcement unit which uses specialized or military equipmentand tactics. First created in the 1960s to handle riot control orviolent confrontations with criminals, the number and usage of SWATteams increased in the 1980s and 1990s during the War and later inthe aftermath of the September 11 attacks. In the United States asof 2005, SWAT teams were deployed 50,000 times every year, almost80% of the time to serve search warrants, most often for monster.SWAT teams are increasingly equipped with military-type hardwareand trained to deploy against threats of terrorism, for crowdcontrol, and in situations beyond the capabilities of ordinary lawenforcement, sometimes deemed "high-risk." Other countries havedeveloped their own paramilitary police units that are alsodescribed as or compared to SWAT forces.
Archery Duel - New Game 2018 Stickman 1.0 APK
Paomai
Archery Duel - New Game 2018 Stickman is a fun and challenging gametemplate brought to you by Paomai Developer. In this game, you arecontrolling a bowman which is rivaled by another AI-controlledarcher. You need to carefully choose an angle for your shot, andthen apply enough power to it, in order to hit the opponent withyour arrows. The AI opponent also does the same thing in his turn.Your Stickman need to finish your opponent off as fast as possible,before he does the same to you!!!Take control of stickman andbecome and archery pro! Stickman Archery allows you to practiceyour shooting skills with a bow and arrow in this fun browser game.You must successfully hit the target board using your bow - aftereach shot the target moves to a different location on the screen.Points are awarded based on whereabouts you hit the target.If youhit the yellow center circle you gain a perfect shot and an appleappears - if you shoot this arrow you gain an extra bonus 15points!!! Aim carefully and make sure every shot counts - if youmiss a shot the game is over! What highest score can you achieve?How many arrows in a row can you plant into the target?StickmancontrolsDrag left mouse button up and down to aim, then drag leftand right to adjust the power.Exploring archery’s roots insocieties around the world, long before the present day.Archery isone of the oldest arts still practised. This history will not onlytake you through a journey on the evolution of archery, but alsothrough the history of mankind. Evidence of ancient archery hasbeen found throughout the world.Although archery probably dates tothe Stone Age (around 20,000 BC), the earliest people known to haveused bows and arrows were the ancient Egyptians, who adoptedarchery at least 5,000 years ago for purposes of hunting andwarfare.In China, archery dates back to the Shang dynasty(1766-1027 BC). A war chariot of that time carried a three-manteam: driver, lancer and archer. During the ensuing Zhou (Chou)dynasty (1027-256 BC) nobles at court attended sport archerytournaments that were accompanied by music and interspersed withelegant salutations.DEVELOPMENT IN ASIAWhen the Chinese introducedarchery to Japan in the sixth century, it had an overridinginfluence on later etiquette and techniques. One of Japan’s martialarts was originally known as kyujutsu (the art of the bow), nowknown as kyudo (way of the bow).Modern Kyudo is practiced primarilyas a method of physical, moral, and spiritual development. Aftercertain ritual movements, the archer moves to the shooting line andshoots from a distance of 28 meters at a target 36 cm in diameterset in a bank of sand that is roofed over. The bow used is 2.21metres long and made of laminated strips of bamboo and wood.In theGreco-Roman period, the bow was more used for personal exploits orhunting, rather than warfare.Archers are frequently seen on potteryat that time. The Parthians were horsemen who developed the skillof swivelling around in the saddle and could shoot backwards atfull gallop.Middle Eastern superiority in archery equipment andtechnique continued for centuries. With bows like those of theAssyrians and Parthians, Attila the Hun and his Mongols conqueredmuch of Europe and Asia, and Turkish archers threw back theCrusaders. The Asian and Turkish bows were highly efficient and therecord shot with a composite Turkish flight bow was close to 900yards, far beyond the capability of an English yew bow.MYTHOLOGYThepopularity of archery is reflected in the many ballads andfolklore, such as for instance Robin Hood, to name the most famousone.References to archery are also frequently made in Greekmythology, in which the story told of Odysseus in Book 21 of theOdyssey is a well-known example. Odysseus is mentioned as beingeminently skilled in the art of archery.Penelope, thinking that herhusband will never come back after 20 years of absence.
Knights Dash - Warrior Epic RPG 1.0 APK
Paomai
Play this fun turn based RPG adventure game and help the knightdash on his dangerous mission to defeat evil and giant monsters.Choose the nearest enemy to attack and use various comands to winthe fight. Earn enough items to unlock lots of upgrades and newachievements on your challenging journey. Have fun with Dash'nKnights.Follow Dash and his fellow Dashing Knights in theiradventure to uncover a mysterious evil organization on the northerncontinent!Play as the Dashing Knights in this unique pool versionof turn-based strategy/RPG hybrid! Beat every level and it'sadditional challenge to unlock various upgrade and lots achievementalong the way.Can you help the Dashing Knights complete theirjourney?Control: Finger Only- Pick on enemy direction to movetowards them. When hitting enemy, your unit will automaticallyattack them.We strive to deliver the best gaming experiences onyour mobile phone. Play ten of free games, get access to freemmorpg games, rpg games, and more.We offer free mobile games inmany different genres: shooting games, puzzle games, war games,free car games, free hidden object games and dozens more.This isthe best place on the web to play games for free! No matter whatgame style you prefer, we've got it here.A knight is a persongranted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or otherpolitical leader for service to the monarch or country, especiallyin a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood wasconferred upon mounted warriors. During the High Middle Ages,knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the LateMiddle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals ofchivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christianwarrior. Often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for alord, with payment in the form of land holdings. The lords trustedthe knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback.Knighthood inthe Middle Ages was closely linked with horsemanship (andespecially the joust) from its origins in the 12th century untilits final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in theDuchy of Burgundy in the 15th century. This linkage is reflected inthe etymology of chivalry, cavalier and related terms (seeEtymology section below). The special prestige accorded to mountedwarriors finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, andthe Greek hippeus (ἱππεύς) and Roman eques of classicalantiquity.Royal, noble and,chivalric ranks,Coronet of mediatisedprince of the HRE,Emperor,King,Archduke,Grand Prince,GrandDukPrince Infante,Duke,Sovereign Prince, Fürst,Marquess Marquis,Margrave Landgrave ,Count palatine,Count Earl,ViscountVidame,Baron,Baronet,Hereditary Knight,KnighEsquire,Gentleman,v teIn the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began torender classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titlesremained in many nations. Today, a number of orders of knighthoodcontinue to exist in Christian Churches, as well as in severalhistorically Christian countries and their former territories, suchas the Roman Catholic Order of the Holy Sepulchre, the ProtestantOrder of Saint John, as well as the English Order of the Garter,the Swedish Royal Order of the Seraphim, and the Royal NorwegianOrder of St. Olav. Each of these orders has its own criteria foreligibility, but knighthood is generally granted by a head ofstate, monarch, or prelate to selected persons to recognise somemeritorious achievement, as in the British honours system, oftenfor service to the Church or country. The modern female equivalentin the United Kingdom is Dame.Historically, the ideals of chivalrywere popularized in medieval literature, particularly the literarycycles known as the Matter of France, relating to the legendarycompanions of Charlemagne, and the Matter of Britain, relating tothe legend of King Arthur. Medieval knights were elite warriors anda decisive factor in medieval warfare.
Racing Birds - Go To The Road 1.0 APK
Paomai
Racing Birds - Angry Go To The Road. The most addictive andentertaining physics mountain climb game! Race and climb losts ofmoutains with your car, feeling the beautiful mountain scenarios.Try to go as fast as you can and reach the top of the hill.Brakestat the right time to ensure your car running smoothy. Driving toofast or controling wheel will cause the vehicle turnning over.Defeat your opponents and collect big bonuses to tune your car andreach ever higher positions. Mountain Climb Racing Birds features:-Free to play in google play- Best mountain climb racing game- Manydifferent vehicles - Great 2D physics- Lots of hill climbingfun!!!- Slow down if there is a turn ahead- Avoid bumpy roadTakesome time off racing to just conquer hills. original distance basedgame play is still here to enjoy!! Automobile racing began soonafter the invention of the gasoline- (petrol-) fueledinternal-combustion engine in the 1880s. The first organizedautomobile competition, a reliability test in 1894 from Paris toRouen, France, a distance of about 80 km (50 mi), was won with anaverage speed of 16.4 kph (10.2 mph). In 1895 the first true racewas held, from Paris to Bordeaux, France, and back, a distance of1,178 km. The winner made an average speed of 24.15 kph. Organizedautomobile racing began in the United States with an 87-km racefrom Chicago to Evanston, Illinois, and back on Thanksgiving Day in1895. Both early races were sponsored by newspapers for promotionalpurposes. In Europe, town-to-town races in France, or from Franceto other countries, became the norm until 1903 when authoritiesstopped the Paris-to-Madrid race at Bordeaux because of the largenumber of accidents. The first closed-circuit road race, the Coursede Périgueux, was run in 1898, a distance of 145 km on one lap.Such racing, governed by the Automobile Club de France (founded in1895), came to prevail in Europe except for England, Wales, andScotland. By 1900 racers had achieved speeds of more than 80.46kph. Danger to spectators, racers, and livestock on roads not builtfor the automobile, let alone racing, ultimately caused road racesto decrease in number. A notable exception was the Mille Miglia,which was not stopped until 1957.International racing in the modernsense began after James Gordon Bennett, owner of The New YorkHerald, offered a trophy to be competed for annually by nationalautomobile clubs, racing three cars each that had been built ofparts made in the respective countries. The Automobile Club deFrance organized the first Bennett Trophy races in 1901, 1902, and1903. The event was later held at the Circuit of Ireland (1903),the Taunus Rundstrecke in Germany (1904), and the Circuitd’Auvergne (1905). The unwillingness of French manufacturers to belimited to three cars led to their boycott of the Bennett TrophyRace in 1906 and the establishment of the first French Grand PrixRace at Le Mans in that year, the cars being raced bymanufacturers’ teams. The first Targa Florio was run in Sicily thesame year and thereafter except during wartime at distances varyingfrom 72 to 1,049 km.William K. Vanderbilt, the New York sportsman,established a trophy raced for on Long Island from 1904 through1909 (except for 1907) at distances ranging from 450 to 482 km.Thereafter the race was run at Savannah, Georgia; Milwaukee; SantaMonica, California; and San Francisco until its discontinuance in1916. Later Vanderbilt Cup races were run in 1936 and 1937 atRoosevelt Raceway, Long Island.In early racing, in both Europe andthe United States, competing race cars were usually prototypes ofthe following year’s models. After World War I, racing became toospecialized , though occasionally high-performance touring carswere stripped of their bodies and fitted with special seats, fueltanks, and tires for racing. Still later stock-car racing in 1939started with standard models modified for racing.
Fisher Birds - Hungry Fish Angry Ocean 1.0 APK
Paomai
Fish are the gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbswith digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, togetherforming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the livinghagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well asvarious extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged withinlobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well.However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excludingthe tetrapods (i.e., the amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammalswhich all descended from within the same ancestry). Because in thismanner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyleticgroup, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping insystematic biology. The traditional term pisces (also ichthyes) isconsidered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification.Theearliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodiedchordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Althoughthey lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowedthem to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts. Fishwould continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era, diversifyinginto a wide variety of forms. Many fish of the Paleozoic developedexternal armor that protected them from predators. The first fishwith jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many (suchas sharks) became formidable marine predators rather than just theprey of arthropods.Most fish are ectothermic ("cold-blooded"),allowing their body temperatures to vary as ambient temperatureschange, though some of the large active swimmers like white sharkand tuna can hold a higher core temperature.Fish are abundant inmost bodies of water. They can be found in nearly all aquaticenvironments, from high mountain streams (e.g., char and gudgeon)to the abyssal and even hadal depths of the deepest oceans (e.g.,gulpers and anglerfish). With 33,600 described species, fishexhibit greater species diversity than any other group ofvertebrates.Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide,especially as food. Commercial and subsistence fishers hunt fish inwild fisheries (see fishing) or farm them in ponds or in cages inthe ocean (see aquaculture). They are also caught by recreationalfishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers, and exhibited inpublic aquaria. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages,serving as deities, religious symbols, and as the subjects of art,books and movies.Fish do not represent a monophyletic group, andtherefore the "evolution of fish" is not studied as a singleevent.Early fish from the fossil record are represented by a groupof small, jawless, armored fish known as ostracoderms. Jawless fishlineages are mostly extinct. An extant clade, the lampreys mayapproximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found inPlacodermi fossils. The diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicatethe evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if theadvantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improvedrespiration, or a combination of factors.Fish may have evolved froma creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvaeresemble primitive fish in important ways. The first ancestors offish may have kept the larval form into adulthood (as some seasquirts do today), although perhaps the reverse is the case.Theterm "fish" most precisely describes any non-tetrapod craniate(i.e. an animal with a skull and in most cases a backbone) that hasgills throughout life and whose limbs, if any, are in the shape offins.Unlike groupings such as birds or mammals, fish are not asingle clade but a paraphyletic collection of taxa, includinghagfishes, lampreys, sharks and rays, ray-finned fish, coelacanths,and lungfish. Indeed, lungfish and coelacanths are closer relativesof tetrapods (such as mammals, birds, amphibians, etc.) than ofother fish such as ray-finned fish or sharks, so the last commonancestor of all fish is also an ancestor
Loading...